COUNTRIES BRIEFS Newsletter ISSN 1563-4108

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Republic of SudanThe Republic of the Sudan is located in the Northeast region of Africa; bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea

Total area: 1,670,540 sq. km after South-Sudan's partition as per July 9, 2011. (Partition line in white on the map at the left side of this paragraph.)

Bordering countries: Central African Republic over 385 km, Chad over 1,360 km, The Republic of South-Sudan over 1,508 km, Egypt over 1,273 km, Eritrea over 605 km, Ethiopia over 850 km, and Libya over 383 km.

Coastline: 853 km

Population: 28,079,000 (July 2011) - after the partition of the Republic of South-Sudan, as per July 9, 2011. Population growth rate: 2.143% (2009)

Ethnic groups: Blacks 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, foreigners 2%, other 1%

Religions: Sunni Muslim 98%, Christian 2% - mostly in Khartoum.

Capital: Khartoum

Independence from Egypt and UK : January 1, 1956
National holiday: Independence Day: January 1
Constitution: April 12, 1973, suspended following coup of April 6, 1985; interim constitution of October 10,1985 suspended following coup of June 30, 1989; new constitution implemented on June 30, 1998 partially suspended December 12, 1999 by President Bashir.

Natural resources: petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold, hydropower

Agricultural productions: cotton, groundnuts, sorghum, millet, wheat, Arabic gum, sesame; sheep

Industrial productions: cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining

For decades, dating from the independence from UK and Egypt on January 1, 1956, the successive Sudan's governments, dominated by Sunni Muslims, relentlessly ruled and acted to imposing the Muslim law of Sharia upon the Southern region's inhabitants who are Christians or African traditional religion practitioners.

Consequently, southerners staged revolts to resist, that led to a lengthy civil war (1983- 2001) between Northerners, and South's rebels groups - the most important one being the one led by John Garang - that is the Sudan People's Liberation Movement / Army.

The civil war claimed more than 2 million people and dislodged more than 4 million people from their home in the southern part of the country.

The war had also, in many ways, hampered the economic development of the country.

For instance, there are chronic shortages for almost all categories of skilled employment because education and training have not been developed accordingly; and bulk of industrial investment and infrastructure - except for the new oil sector - dated back to the 1980's. The private sector's main areas of activity are agriculture and trading.

Oil Production in SudanThe Sudanese government worked with foreign partners - Malaysia, China, and western countries companies, to develop the oil sector. The production level is currently at the date of writing this brief (July 2011) producing approximately 400,000 barrels per day See Graph at the left side courtesy of: USA's Energy Information Administration


Beginning of year 2004, Government and Rebels reached a Wealth Sharing Agreement, that stated that southern Sudan oil revenues will be shared between the government and the southern rebels, during a transitional period of 6 years following the signing of a comprehensive peace agreement. In fact, the Agreement gave South-Sudan economic independence.

Finally, on July 9, 2005 the Sudanese (Northern) Government led by Umar al-Bashir and John Garang' Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army (S.P.L.M./A.) signed a Comprehensive Peace Agreement (C.P.A.). A consecration for John Garang fight for the dignity and economic sovereignty of Southerners. John Garang, was sworn in as First Vice President, while Umar al-Bashir retained the presidency of Africa’s largest country in a new Sudanese government of national unity.

John Garang died on July 30, 2005 in a copter accident. Click here for John Garang's biography. And Sylva n Kiir took over the destiny of South Sudan, leading the new republic to independence on July 9, 2011.


The government of Sudan, was the first to recognize, at midnight Friday 8, 2011, the independence of South Sudan proclaimed in Juba, on July 9, 2011.

Oil Pipeline to Port SudanSo, apparently the partition had been completed in good atmosphere between Sudan's government and the new state led by Sylva Kiir

The near future would give more precision about the relationship between the two entities as oil production, transportation and export may become a big apple discord.

Indeed, 90% percent of the production come from wells located in the south, but the export pipelines are north oriented - from the wells in South-Sudan to Port Sudan - as shown on the image at the left side of this paragraph.

South Sudan's authorities are planning for a new south oriented export pipeline to the port of Mombassa in Kenya. What would be the reaction of Sudan's authorities? The near future would tell.

Click here for dynamic news headlines on Sudan.

1- D&B Export Guide To Sudan
Digital Delivery by D&B
2- A History of Sudan
From the Coming Day of Islam to the Present Day by P.M. Hott
3- Emma's War
True Story of Love and Death In Sudan
An Aid Worker, A Warlord, Radical Islam and the Politics of Oil / by Deborah Scroggins
4- Prisoners of Rituals
An Odyssey Into Female Genital Circumcision in Africa by Hanny Lightfoot-Klein
5- War And Slavery In Sudan
The Ethnobiography of Political Violence / by Jok Madut
6- Wombs and Aliens Spirits
Women, Men and the Zar Cult In Northern Sudan by Jenices Body
7- More News On Sudan
by Yahoo!
8- Power And Wealth Sharing
Make or Break Time in Sudan's Peace Process by ICG International Crisis Group
18 December 2002
Digital Delivery In PDF

Click here to read report online.
here and choose "Save As" to download the Report in PDF. You may need Acrobat Reader available here

Click to contact Dr. Bienvenu-Magloire Quenum



Figures below outlined have been compounded before the partition between South Sudan and Sudan on July 9, 2011.

Years 2000 2002 2005 2008 2010
GDP - billion US$ 9.95 11.40 12.70 14.06 15.54
Percent Increase 14.5 11.39 9.9 10.5 11.2

Click here for the difference between GNP and Parity Purchasing Power

GNP-composition by sector

  1. agriculture: 37%

  2. industry: 18%
  3. services: 45%

Exports: US$ 13.620 billion (fob, 2008) US$
Commodities: cotton, sesame, livestock, groundnuts, crude oil, Arabic gum
Exports - partners: China 82.1%, Japan 8.4%, UAE 2.5%, Saudi Arabia 4.9% (2007)

Imports: US$ 7.755 billion (fob, 2008)
Commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum products, manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, medicines and chemicals, textiles.
Imports - partners: China 27.9%, Saudi Arabia 7.5%, India 6.3%, Egypt 5.6%, UAE 5.5%, Japan 4.2% (2007)



Entry visas are required for almost all nationalities, and are valid usually for one month.

Evidence of a previous visit to Israel will result in a visa refusal.

Permits are required to travel anywhere outside Khartoum

Visitors arriving in any town or city in the Sudan must register with the police on their arrival, and show the necessary paperwork.

Permits are required to visit archaeological or historical sites. The cost of delivery is often expensive; deliverance is made by the Department of Antiquities in Khartoum.

A curfew operated in most large cities and towns from midnight until 4 AM.

For latest entry information please contact the nearest Sudan's diplomatic representation.

Embassy of Sudan

12 Avenue Franklin D. Roosevelt
B1060 Brussels
Tel: +(32) 2 647-9494 / 647-5159
Fax: +(32) 2 648-3499
Telex: 24370
Embassy of Sudan

Reisner Str., 29/5,
1030 Vienna, Austria.
Tel: +(431) 7102343 / 7102344)
Fax: +(431) 7102346)
Telex: 114385
E-mail: Click here
Embassy of Sudan

457, Laurier Avenue East
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N 6R4
Tel: +(1) 613 235-4000 / 235-4999
Fax: +(1) 613 235 6880.
Embassy of Sudan

Building # 27
San Li Tuin
Beijing, China
Tel: +(86) 10 532-375/532-3329
Fax: +(86) 10 532-1280
E-Mail: Click here


The international airport of Khartoum had regular connections with Middle East countries and Gulf states. EgyptAir, Ethiopian Airways have regular schedule to and from Khartoum.

The country have one of the lengthier railways track in Africa; 5,311 km of disparate gauging:

a- 4,595 km of of narrow gauge;
b- 1.067 km of 1m gauge
c- and 716 km of 1.6096-m gauge.

The main line linking Khartoum to Port Sudan carries over two-thirds of Sudan's rail traffic

Thanks to the River Nile, Sudan has developed a performing waterways system: 5,310 km navigable with the following ports: Juba, Khartoum, Kusti, Malakal, Nimule.

There is a pipeline network for the transfer of refined petroleum products (815 km) from Port-Sudan to the industrial area around Khartoum.

The main sea ports are Port Sudan and Sawakin located on the coastline of Red Sea.


1 - Sudan Airways
P.O. Box 253, Khartoum Sudan
Tel. (249) 11 74 79 53
Fax. (249) 11 747978
Telex 22257 sudanair sd

2 - Sudan Chamber of Commerce

P.O. Box 81
Khartoum Sudan

Tel: +(249) 72346
Click here to review funding available to rebuild power generation system

There are hotels of good standard in the capital-city Khartoum. Some are below listed

Huriya Street
PO BOX 1808
Tel: +(249) 11 72974
Baladia Park
Tel:+(249) 1) 78204
Tel: +(249) 11 72860
Fax: +(249) 11 70898
Nile Avenue
Tel: +(249) 11 80811

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