COUNTRIES BRIEFS Newsletter ISSN 1563-4108

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Republic of South SudanThe Republic of the South-Sudan is located in the southern part of the Republic of Sudan - as shown on the satellite map (courtesy NASA) at the left side of this paragraph.

The government of Sudan formally recognizes the new republic according to the borders white line at the middle-bottom of the map at the left side of this paragraph, which is the borderline existing on January 1, 1956 - the date of Sudan's independence from UK and Egypt.

Total area: 835,270 sq. km / Approximately one third of previous area territory of Sudan prior to the partition.

Bordering countries: Central African Republic over 780 km, The Republic of Sudan over 1,508 km, The Democratic Republic of the Congo over 628 km, Egypt over 1,273 km, Eritrea over 605 km, Ethiopia over 820 km, Kenya over 232 km, Libya over 383 km, Uganda over 435 km

Coastline: The Republic of South-Sudan is a landlocked country. This would be one of the many handicap to "hindering" the developing of the country at least for the coming decade after the independence (July 9, 2011)

Population: 13,079,814 (2008- 2009 census). Population growth rate: 2.64% (2009).

Ethnic groups: Black 97%, Arab 2% other 1%

Religions: Indigenous traditional belief system: 55%, Christian 43% and about 2% Sunni Muslims.

Capital: Juba

Independence from Sudan: July 9, 2011
National holiday: Independence Day: July 9
Constitution: An overwhelming majority of South Sudanese voted in a January 2011 referendum to secede and a new interim constitution was ratified by the National Legislative Assembly on July 7, 2011.

Natural resources: petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold, hydropower

Agricultural productions: cotton, groundnuts, sorghum, millet, wheat, Arabic gum, sesame; sheep

Industrial productions: cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining

For decades, dating from the independence from UK and Egypt on January 1, 1956, the successive Sudan's governments, dominated by Sunni Muslims, relentlessly ruled and acted to imposing the Muslim law of Sharia upon the Southern region's inhabitants who are Christians or African traditional religion practitioners.

Consequently, southerners staged revolts to resist, that led to a lengthy civil war (1983- 2001) between Northerners, and South's rebels groups - the most important one being the one led by John Garang - that is the Sudan People's Liberation Movement / Army.

The civil war claimed more than 2 million people and dislodged more than 4 million people from their home in the southern part of the country.

The war had also, in many ways, hampered the economic development of the country.

For instance, there are chronic shortages for almost all categories of skilled employment because education and training have not been developed accordingly; and bulk of industrial investment and infrastructure - except for the new oil sector - dated back to the 1980's. The private sector's main areas of activity are agriculture and trading.

Oil Production in SudanThe Sudanese government worked with foreign partners - Malaysia, China, and western countries companies, to develop the oil sector. The production level is currently at the date of writing this brief (July 2011) producing approximately 400,000 barrels per day as per the graph at the left side courtesy of USA's Energy Information Administration


Beginning of year 2004, Government and Rebels reached a Wealth Sharing Agreement, that stated that southern Sudan oil revenues will be shared between the government and the southern rebels, during a transitional period of 6 years following the signing of a comprehensive peace agreement. In fact, the Agreement gave South-Sudan economic independence.

Finally, on July 9, 2005 the Sudanese (Northern) Government led by Umar al-Bashir and John Garang' Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army (S.P.L.M./A.) signed a Comprehensive Peace Agreement (C.P.A.). A consecration for John Garang fight for the dignity and economic sovereignty of Southerners. John Garang, was sworn in as First Vice President, while Umar al-Bashir retained the presidency of Africa’s largest country in a new Sudanese government of national unity.

John Garang died on July 30, 2005 in a copter accident. Click here for John Garang's biography. And Sylva Kiir took over the destiny of South Sudan, leading the new republic to independence on July 9, 2011.


The government of Sudan, was the first to recognize, at midnight Friday 8, 2011, the independence of South Sudan proclaimed in Juba, on July 9, 2011.

Oil Pipeline to Port SudanSo, apparently the partition had been completed in good atmosphere between Sudan's government and the new state led by Sylva Kiir.

The near future would give more precision about the relationship between the two entities as oil production, transportation and export may become a big apple discord.

Indeed, 90% percent of the production come from wells located in the south, but the export pipelines are north oriented - from the wells in South-Sudan to Port Sudan - as shown on the image at the left side of this paragraph.

South Sudan's authorities are planning for a new south oriented export pipeline to the port of Mombassa in Kenya. What would be the reaction of Sudan's authorities? The near future would tell.


In the new country of South-Sudan, everything from schools, roads, administration and other infrastructure such as telephone network, hospitals and everything else have to be built and structured from scratch.

This is doubtless, an interesting country and nation building case study. A huge task that would lead to prosperity of sheer poverty depending on the capacity of the new country's leaders to deliver using new technology and innovation in energy production and resources management, to bridging the developing gap

The Developing Strategy here outlined that links together agriculture development, industrial development (using crops as raw materials to producing food stuffs and other industrial products), and services's expansion can be useful to boost the economic development and create riches for all in South-Sudan - in a very short span of time.

Click here for dynamic news headlines on Sudan/ South-Sudan and here for South Sudan's profile.

1- D&B Export Guide To Sudan
Digital Delivery by D&B
2- A History of Sudan
From the Coming Day of Islam to the Present Day by P.M. Hott
3- Emma's War
True Story of Love and Death In Sudan
An Aid Worker, A Warlord, Radical Islam and the Politics of Oil / by Deborah Scroggins
4- Prisoners of Rituals
An Odyssey Into Female Genital Circumcision in Africa by Hanny Lightfoot-Klein
5- War And Slavery In Sudan
The Ethnobiography of Political Violence / by Jok Madut
6- Wombs and Aliens Spirits
Women, Men and the Zar Cult In Northern Sudan by Jenices Body
7- More News On Sudan
by Yahoo!
8- Power And Wealth Sharing
Make or Break Time in Sudan's Peace Process by ICG International Crisis Group
18 December 2002
Digital Delivery In PDF

Click here to read report online.
here and choose "Save As" to download the Report in PDF. You may need Acrobat Reader available here

Click to contact Dr. Bienvenu-Magloire Quenum



Figures below outlined have been compounded before the partition between South Sudan and Sudan on July 9, 2011.

Years 2000 2002 2005 2008 2010
GDP - billion US$ 9.95 11.40 12.70 14.06 15.54
Percent Increase 14.5 11.39 9.9 10.5 11.2

Click here for the difference between GNP and Parity Purchasing Power

GNP-composition by sector

  1. agriculture: 37%

  2. industry: 18%
  3. services: 45%

Exports: US$ 13.620 billion (fob, 2008) US$
Commodities: cotton, sesame, livestock, groundnuts, crude oil, Arabic gum
Exports - partners: China 82.1%, Japan 8.4%, UAE 2.5%, Saudi Arabia 4.9% (2007)

Imports: US$ 7.755 billion (fob, 2008)
Commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum products, manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, medicines and chemicals, textiles.
Imports - partners: China 27.9%, Saudi Arabia 7.5%, India 6.3%, Egypt 5.6%, UAE 5.5%, Japan 4.2% (2007)



For latest entry information please contact the nearest South-Sudan's diplomatic representation.

United States of America

South Sudan Mission in Washington, DC

Visit following link:

The Government of South Sudan
The Director General of Information
Tel: +249-922-260-000 / +249-122-975-874 / +256-477-185278


Juba, the capital city, is connected to the international airport of Khartoum, at Sudan, for regular flights to and from Middle East countries and Gulf states. EgyptAir, Ethiopian Airways have regular schedule to and from Khartoum.

South-Sudan is also connected to Sudan through the lengthier railways track in Africa; 5,311 km of disparate gauging:

a- 4,595 km of of narrow gauge;
b- 1.067 km of 1m gauge
c- and 716 km of 1.6096-m gauge.

South-Sudan is also linked to the existing and efficient waterways system: 5,310 km navigable with the following ports: Juba, Khartoum, Kusti, Malakal, Nimule.

The closest port to the capital city of Juba is the harbor of Monbassa, in Kenya.


The Government of South Sudan
The Director General of Information
Tel: +249-922-260-000 / +249-122-975-874 / +256-477-185278
Click here to review funding available to rebuild power generation system

Accommodation facilities are scarce in Juba the capital city. Two are below listed. Click on the URL links to make contact..

The Jebel Lodge
15 minutes from the city center

The Star Hotel
50 Standard rooms / 22 Executive rooms and, 4 Suites.

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