COUNTRIES BRIEFS Newsletter ISSN 1563-4108

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Chad map :The Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection
The University of Texas at Austin

The Republic of Chad is a landlocked country; located in North Central Africa, south of Libya.

It has a total area of: 1.284 million sq. km (land: 1,259,200 sq. km water: 24,800 sq. km)

Bordering countries: Cameroon over 1,094 km, Central African Republic (CAR) over 1,197 km, Libya over 1,055 km, Niger over 1,175 km, Nigeria over 87 km, Sudan over 1,360 km

Population: 8,424,504 (July 2000 est.); 9,253,493 (July 2003 est.) Population growth rate: 3.07% (2003 est.)

Independence from France: August 11, 1960
National holiday: Independence Day: 11 August 11
Constitution: March 31, 1995

Capital: N'Djamena

Natural resources: petroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad)

Agriculture productions: cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, cassava; cattle, sheep, goats, camels

Industrial productions: cotton textiles, meat packing, beer brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials.

With one of the most hectic (to say the least) political national life in Africa, Chad's population had been through dire straits during two decades (1970-1990) of civil warfare.

Rivalry between several "clans" of northern politicians and warlords; constant fights, plots and counterplots among them poisoned the political life of Chad - not to mention the attempt by neighboring Libya to annexing the AOZOU STRIP in the North of the country.

In 1990, President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY succeeded in capturing state power, taming rival warlords, controlling and coming to terms with most of the political-military groups - particularly settling the long lasting territorial dispute with Libya. A democratic constitution was approved by referendum on March 1995; followed by multiparty presidential and National Assembly elections in 1996 and 1997 respectively.

In 1998 a new rebellion broke out in northern Chad, led by a former member of President Deby's government - Youssef Togoimi.

The rebel leader died on September 25, 2002 from injuries suffered when his vehicle hit a land mine on August 28 in the North of the country. Since the death of the chief rebel the battle front-line is calm. It seems that none of Toigoimi's lieutenant is capable of pursuing the rebellion against the national government. So far so good.

Nevertheless, one should remark that, in spite of the improvement in multiparty democracy, there is an atmosphere of suspicion and mistrust between politicians from the northern part of the country and those from the South.

All above briefly outlined political turmoils had a negative impact on the developing of the country. Its landlocked status is another handicap, which increases the cost of importing goods. Currently Chad is suffering from the lack of adequate infrastructure: no railways system. Roads are in poor condition. (During the summer rainy season - mid-June to mid-September - many roads become impassable or are restricted by rain barriers.)

Till now, about 85% of the population depends on agriculture and animal herding. Agriculture contributing to 38% of GDP and 59% to hard currency earnings thanks to Cotton the main cash crop. This will change with oil exploitation that started on october 2003.

Map courtesy of BBC onlineIndeed, the dream comes true for Chad. The development of the Doba Basin oil fields reached the final stage of implementation. Three years after the launching ceremony on October 18, 2000 (by Presidents Deby and Cameroon's Biya) of the US $ 3.5 billion Pipeline Project led by Exxon Mobil Corp. (XOM), Deby officially inaugurated on October 10, 2003 the oil-pumping infrastructure at the Chadian side. It will ship oil from wells in southwestern Chad down a 1,070-kilometer pipeline to Cameroon's Atlantic port of Kribi. (Map at left side).

The high-profile ceremony was attended by 600 VIPs. and eight heads of state. Depending on the world price of crude oil, Chad will be earning between US $ 2.5 billion and US $ 8.5 billion per year thanks to the 12.5% royalty agreement and taxes. That influx of revenues will give room to Chad's government to implementing vital investments in infrastructure and in much needed education and health facilities.

And on June 12, 2004, African leaders formally opened the taps at Cameroon' side in the city-harbor of Kribi. That ceremony sees the completion of on one of the largest private investments ever in sub-Saharan Africa -- amounting to US $3.7 billion. In fact, crude oil began flowing through the 663 miles pipeline last year when taps were opened at Chadian side on October 10, 2003.

Let us hope that Chad's political auhorities will not neglect agriculture and use sizable portion of the proceeds from oil to devise and implement a scheme:

1 - to set up a reserve / funds - like Kuwait's Reserve For Future Generation Click here for more - for the period after the oil era. (According to Exxon's experts, production / reserves will last 25-30 years)

2 - to devise and implement a strategic scheme to boost agriculture production and establish a strong agribusiness sector.

Courtesy of BusinessAfrica™ / Dr. Quenum & Associates - Investment and Business Planners - Click here for a strategic development scheme applicable to Chad.


1- D&B Export Guide To Chad
Digital Delivery In PDF by D&b
2- National Unity And Regionalism
In Eight African States
by Gwendolen Margaret
3- Historical Dictionary of Chad
by Samuel Decalo

Click to contact Dr. Bienvenu-Magloire Quenum



US$ 1.61billion (2001); 1.74billion (2002); 1.94 billion (2003)
GNP-growth rate: 4% (2000); 8% (2001); 11.3% (2002 est.)
GNP-per capita: US$ 365 (2000); 210 (2003)

Click here for the difference between GNP and Parity Purchasing Power

GNP-composition by sector

  1. agriculture: 32%

  2. industry: 17%
  3. services: 51% (2002)

Exports: US$ 172 million (f.o.b., 2000); 170 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Commodities: cotton, cattle, textiles, petroleum (end of 2003)
Exports - partners: Portugal 28.3%, Germany 13.6%, US 7.8%, Czech Republic 6.5%, France 5.8%, Nigeria 5.8%, Poland 5.5%, Spain 5.2%, Morocco 4.5% (2002) .

Imports: US$ 223 million (f.o.b., 2000); 570 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners: France 31.5%, US 31.4%, Germany 5.5%, Nigeria 4.6% (2002)




A passport and a visa are required for most nationalities.

Authorization from the Minister of the Interior must be obtained before one can travel outside the capital. Visitors must also register within 3 days of arrival at a police station. Exit visas are required if traveling to Niger or Sudan.

The following international Vaccination / immunizations certificates are required (and, often, proof of this) against yellow fever, cholera, tetanus, typhoid and hepatitis.

Further entry information may be obtained from the Embassy of the Republic of Chad in Washington D.C. below listed with a website URL

Embassy of Chad
2002 R Street NW
Washington, DC 20009
Tel: +([1) 202 462-4009
Fax: +([1) 202 265-1937
Website URL: Click here
Tourism Promotion Office
Direction de la Promotion Touristique
BP 86, N'djamena
+(235) 524416
Fax: +(235) 524419
Embassy of Chad

65 rue des Belles Feuilles
75116 Paris
Tel: +(33) 1 45533675
Fax: +(33) 1 45531609
Click here to review funding available to rebuild power generation system


You can fly direct to Chad from Paris at least twice a week by Air-France and Cameroon Airlines. Chad national flag carrier - Air-Chad - has connections - several times a week - to Congo - where there is a link to Ethiopia by Ethiopian Airlines - and to Central African Republic.

Flying around Chad is often the only practical option, with flights costing, on average, US$70 (AIr-Chad: Tel: +(235) 52 45 64 - Fax: +(235) 52 35 82); Air-Affaires Chad (Tel: +(235) 51 60 37 - Fax: +(235) 51 06 20)

To move around in Chad, an official "authorization de circuler" - an official permit to move around delivered by the Minister of the Interior - especially for trips to the northern or western regions.

All imports / exports are transported by roads from and to the port of Douala in neighboring Cameroon.


Chamber of Commerce, Industry, Agriculture and Mining
13, Rue du Colonel Moll
B.P. 548
Tel: +(235) 21 20 65
Fax: +(235) 21 47 30
Click here to review funding available to rebuild power generation system

The choice for hotels is limited. Following is a list of N'Djamena's hotels used by international travelers. Credit cards are only accepted at the two top hotels in N'Djamena: hotel Chari / Meridien and hotel Novotel.

B.P. 109
Tel: +(235) 52-43-12 / 52-45-25
Fax: +(235) 52-59-43 / 52-43-97
BP. 610
Tel: +(235) 51-05-83
Hotel du CHARI
BP. 118
Tel: +(235) 52-39-56 / 52-53-50
Fax: +(235) 52-22-61
Telex: 5358 KD
BP. 697
Tel: +(235) 52-26-90 / 52-31-07
Fax: +(235) 52-43-70

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