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AFRICABIZ VOL 1 - ISSUE: 98
JUNE 15 - JULY 14, 2007
Previous Issue
Editor: Dr. Bienvenu-Magloire Quenum
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A WORD FROM THE EDITOR


Dear visitor and international investor,



We warmly welcome you, if this is your first visit to Africabiz Online - The ultimate newsletter on trading and investing in 49 sub-Saharan African countries. If you are a regular and faithful reader, welcome back.

G8 PROMISES? HOT AIR. NOW EVEN THE FAITHFULS ARE LOST

The G8 - Club of the most industrialized countries - completed its annual meeting at Heiligendamm / Germany (June 6-8, 2007) with a promise to grant Africa 62 billion to fight against AIDS / HIV. Of course, they said nothing about previous summits resolutions - and particularly Gleneagles, Scotland, UK, 2005 Summit's resolution about Debts' cancellation. And had not provided any information about the timing of the "generosity," the eventual disbursement of funds - which casts doubt on the "sincerity" of the pledge.

This is not a scoop for Africabiz Online. We had long ago expressed our opinion exposed in several issues [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] and stated that G8 Will Never Deliver.

Non Governmental Organizations's leaders and everyone truly concerned about the plight of African countries are now in agreement that G8 will not be the "savior." Even the blinds saw the light, and the faithfuls are lost. Watch following YouTube video to hear Bob Geldof expressing disappointment.


Only the Africans themselves can reverse the economic stagnation and decline to prosperity for all. Taking their destiny in their own hands.

This sounds like a repetition as we had expressed that opinions in several deliveries over 10 years. But it must be repeated again and again: Africans themselves are the only ones capable of reversing the trend from shear poverty to prosperity - as performed by Asian countries.

The western developed countries do not have a "moral responsibility" to take care of the South. We Africans cannot, 50 years after gaining political independence, continue blaming former colonial powers for the underdevelopment or non-development plaguing our countries.

Sure, we know that Europe used all ways and means to underdevelop Africa

Still, now the Africans are the ones responsible for the underdevelopment. The African "elite" are responsible. They are in charge since 50 years. The African decision-makers have the moral responsibility to take necessary steps to reversing the economic decline in sub-Saharan African countries.

Click here to read about: An Historic Strategic Opportunity Not To Surrender To T.I.N.A.


Dr. B.M. Quenum

Editor of AFRICABIZ

Contact Dr. Bienvenu-Magloire Quenum

BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES IN AFRICA


- Several business opportunities - component parts of the Integrated Developing Scheme described in Africans, Stop Being Poor! are listed in following table.


a- SHEA BUTTER (5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13)
b- BLUE GOLD (14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19)
c- FREEZE-DRIED PAPAIN (20, 21, 22 and here)
d- KENAF (23, 24)
e- VEGETABLE OIL (25, 26, 27, 28)
f- CEREALS (30, 31, 32, 33)
g- FRUITS (34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46)
h- ESSENTIAL OILS (47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52)
i- ROOTS & TUBERS (54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64)
j- FOWL BREEDING (66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76)
k- FISH FARMING (78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87)
l- BIOMASS ENERGY (89, 90, 91, 92)
m- SUGAR CANE & PRODUCTS (93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99/100,

- SUGAR CANE & PRODUCTS: PART VI - A MEDIUM-SCALE OPERATION TO MANUFACTURING BROWN SUGAR - A- PRELIMINARIES

This series' first issue outlined the importance of sugar-cane as Economic Catalyst to developing. The current delivery deals briefly with the preliminaries about a labor intensive medium-scale operation - to produce brown sugar from sugarcane juice - as an alternative to a capital intensive facility.

Flow Chart Sugar Production Sugarcane juice is used for making white sugar, brown sugar (Khandsari), Jaggery (Gur) and ethanol.

The main byproducts of sugar industry are bagasse and molasses - as per the production's flow chart at the left side of this paragraph - courtesy of amproexport.com.

Sugarcane contains about 70% in weight of juice, in which sucrose and other substances are held in solution, and 30% in weight of bagasse.


Important points to remember during crushing are:


(1) Sugarcane sticks must be crushed within 24 hours of being harvested. After this time sucrose begins to 'invert' into different kind of sugars that will not crystallized well.

(2) Crushing efficiency is the most important factor to maximizing sugar (sucrose) yields.

Every possible amount of juice needs to be squeezed from the sugarcane sticks - in order also to have bagasses that are easy to dry.

The juice is collected, filtered and sometimes treated (with natural additives such as lime, wood ashes and or chemicals stabilizers such as sulfur dioxides or sodium hydrogen sulphates - to settle impurities and "clarify"/ lighten the liquid color) and then boiled to evaporate water in excess.

The dried crushed sugarcane residue (bagasse) is often used as fuel for the boiling process but it can also be used as raw material to produce tar-saturated cardboard roofing. The remaining liquid is allowed to set into a solid mass known as jaggery, gur, chancaca, or panela. These can be further dried to produce muscovado /brown sugar.

- THE BOILING PROCESSS

This is a critical process that determines final product's yields. Small-scale producers in Asian countries perform it in large pans over open fires or simple furnaces. It is essential to use clean pans and tools, for once the juice has been heated, impurities would speed the sugar-inversion process, and lead to reduced yield of sucrose/ sugar. Therefore, the boiling pans and tools should be thoroughly cleaned between uses.

Sediment settles to the bottom of the pan during boiling and is dredged out. Scum rises to the top and is skimmed off. (These wastes can be used to feed cattle). The end point of the boiling process corresponds to a Brix (sugar content) of 90-95%. [Source]

The "perfect" control of the boiling process is therefore critical in order to obtain a quality-stable final product that is appealing to consumers. It requires experienced and skilled workers who have the adequate know-how to transferring the juice from pan to pan, to ensuring (a) the maximum clarification of the juice, (b) the maximum concentration of juice into syrup and from syrup to massecuite, and, finally, (c) the development of bigger and maximum number of sugar crystals in the massecuite (RAB).

Therefore, investment estimate exposed in
next delivery - July 15, 2007/ Issue 99/100 will consider the utilization of modern technology - yet affordable - Open Pan Boiling/ Evaporating System to establishing a medium-scale operation to producing brown sugar/ muscovado.

The above chart-flow shows that the Centrifugal process yields 50 kg of lightly colored brown sugar and about 80 kg of brown sugar (melted) with molasses - from one ton of sugarcane sticks.

Next delivery (Issue 99/100 July 15, 2007) will give more information about the centrifugal process and expose data and economics to sizing up a medium-scale operation to producing brown sugar (from sugarcane juice) - based on labor intensive modern technology.

MORE ON SUGAR CANE & PRODUCTS
1- Sugar Cane Industry, The (Cambridge Studies in Historical Geography)
by J.H. Galloway (Paperback Sep 23, 2005)
2- The House Surrounded by Sugar
by Leanna Williams (Paperback - Mar 8, 2006)
3- From Cane to Sugar (Start to Finish)
by Jill Braithwaite (Hardcover - Aug 2004)
4- Cane Sugar Handbook: A Manual for Cane Sugar Manufacturers and Their Chemists
by James C. P. Chen and Chung Chi Chou (Hardcover - Nov 8, 1993)
5-
Sugar Cane
by Alex Morgan (Paperback - Aug 28, 2002)
6- The Sugar cane factory: A catechism of cane sugar manufacture for the use of beginners
by Frederic I Scard (Unknown Binding - 1913)
7-
Sugar Cane Cultivation and Management
by Henk, Bakker and H., Bakker (Hardcover - Jan 1, 1999)
 

8- Sugar Cane (Tropical Agriculturalist)
by R. Fauconnier (Paperback - Feb 24, 1993)
9- Management Accounting for the Sugar Cane Industry (Sugar Sciences, Vol 8)
by A. E. Fok Kam (Hardcover - Mar 1988)
10- The nature and properties of the sugar cane
With practical directions for the improvement of its cultures, and the manufacture of its products)
by George Richardson Porter (Unknown Binding - 1831)
11- Sugar-cane and Sugar Industry in Nigeria
The Bitter Sweet Lessons
by Abdul-latif D. Busari (Paperback - Nov 2005)
12- The 2007-2012 World Outlook for Sugar Cane Mill Products
by Philip M. Parker (Paperback - Oct 13, 2006)

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