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AFRICABIZ VOL 1 - ISSUE: 95
MARCH 15 - APRIL 14, 2007
Previous Issue
Editor: Dr. Bienvenu-Magloire Quenum
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A WORD FROM THE EDITOR


Dear visitor and international investor,


We warmly welcome you, if this is your first visit to Africabiz Online - The ultimate newsletter on trading and investing in 49 sub-Saharan African countries. If you are a regular and faithful reader, welcome back.

- WEBMAIL EMAIL ADDRESSES CANNOT BE USED FOR BUSINESS RELATIONSHIP

Every day we receive 150 to 250 emails. Four out of five are web-based email addresses: HotMail, Yahoo, ICQ, Gmail, Netscape, mail.com, AOL and AIM webmails and so on. Not to mention fake email addresses such as akcnelsnn@eodnckei.cnn.com, which can be quickly spotted and stop right away from the mail server.

Most of the time, messages based on these webmails and fake domain names, propose pharmaceuticals, sex enhancing medicine and get-rich-quick schemes.

Some, however, around 10 to 20 are sent by people enquiring about Dr. Quenum & Associates services and searching to establish business relationship. Most of the time, these people do not even provide additional information such as Telephone numbers, Fax numbers, physical address or eventually URL to their company website. They make believe that webmail addresses are sufficient to get a reply or open business relationship with Dr. Quenum & Associates, IBC / BusinessAfrica (TM)

We used to reply to them, out of courtesy. However, we have now reached the conclusion that it is a waste of time as 99 percent of these webmail messages are simply hoaxes dispatched by unscrupulous people roaming the net for mischief.

Further, even a well established webmail company such as Yahoo does not accept financial transactions with clients who provide only Yahoo webmail. You cannot, for instance, buy Yahoo Messenger's PhoneIn units online, with a credit card, providing only yahoo.com email address. You should also provide an Internet Service Provider (ISP) based email address or an email address, which domain name can be traced back to legitimate domain names database.

Dr. Quenum and Associates, IBC / BusinessAfrica (TM) have decided to follow Yahoo wise business practice. Therefore, from now on, only email messages, which domain names can be traced back to legitimate database of domain names would get replies from Dr. Quenum & Associates, IBC / BusinessAfrica (TM). For more on the matter, please visit this link.

The problem of web-based email addresses (webmails) above discussed is linked to security and privacy surfing and working online and identity theft. Click following link to read about: How to Prevent Identity Theft

- SERVICES AND PRODUCTS FROM Dr. QUENUM & ASSOCIATES / BUSINESSAFRICA (TM)

List of Products and Solutions to trading and investing in and out emerging nations - and particularly in sub-Saharan African nations - is here to review.

We draw your attention to Jobs & Projects' platform that assists first, project-owners to tender for the best experts to carry out projects at very competitive costs, and, second, job-seekers to publish for free Résumés/CV to attract project-owners attention.

The Pay-Per- Click advertisement platform is also the cheapest way to advertise for your business.

- Contributor's Guidelines are here to review. Your contribution on "How emerging nations and particularly African countries / entrepreneurs could bridge the developing gap" is welcome. You may visit Africabiz Online Interactive to comment about articles posted in Africabiz Online.

Many thanks for dropping by and see you here on April 15, 2007.

Dr. B.M. Quenum

Editor of AFRICABIZ

Contact Dr. Bienvenu-Magloire Quenum

BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES IN AFRICA


- Several business opportunities - component parts of the Integrated Developing Scheme described in Africans, Stop Being Poor! are listed in following table.


a- SHEA BUTTER (5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13)
b- BLUE GOLD (14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19)
c- FREEZE-DRIED PAPAIN (20, 21, 22 and here)
d- KENAF (23, 24)
e- VEGETABLE OIL (25, 26, 27, 28)
f- CEREALS (30, 31, 32, 33)
g- FRUITS (34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46)
h- ESSENTIAL OILS (47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52)
i- ROOTS & TUBERS (54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64)
j- FOWL BREEDING (66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76)
k- FISH FARMING (78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87)
l- BIOMASS ENERGY (89, 90, 91, 92)
m- SUGAR CANE & PRODUCTS (93, 94, 95, 96,

- SUGAR CANE & PRODUCTS: PART III - INTRODUCTION TO SMALL-SCALE SUGAR-CANE JUICE PRODUCTION

The first issue pertaining to current series outlined the importance of sugar-cane as Economic Catalyst to developing. This current delivery deals with sugar-cane basic processed product resulting from the crushing of sugar-cane sticks: the sugar-cane juice.

As for any other transformed produce from agricultural raw-materials, the (gustatory) quality of the juice is related to the quality of the processed-sticks. High quality sugar-cane sticks (harvested at the right time in optimum conditions) will yield good juice content with high sugar levels (up to 20% and above). By contrast, poor quality sugar-cane sticks - particularly the ones that had been too early harvested, could yield good juice content, which however has fairly low level of sugar content.

- PRODUCTION OF SUGAR-CANE JUICE

- Crushing process

Sugar-cane juice production uses a simple technique that is the crushing of the sticks. However, the technology used to crushing the sticks have an impact on the quantity of juice extracted (Scroll down for links to some manufacturers of modern small-scale processing equipment).

Important points to take into account are:

- Cane must be crushed within 24 hours of being cut to "save" the quality of the final product that is cane-sugar. Otherwise, after that crucial period the primary sugar starts a sugar inversion process that produces categories of sugars, which do not crystallize as well as the primary sugar contained in the fresh juice.

- Crushing efficiency is the most important factor to controlling production's yields.
For instance, a crusher driven by a single ox can process around 50kg of sugar-cane per hour, and an operation driven by a 5HP diesel engine can process six times more i.e. 300kg per hour of sugar-cane. That shows the efficiency ratio of a modern crushing technology Vs a traditional one.

- Juice processing

Filtration is required to remove fibers debris and other solid impurities from the fresh extracted juice. The filtrated juice can then be sold as fresh beverage. For further processing to obtaining cane-sugar and by-products, another treatment is required that is the boiling of the juice.

1- Filtration

Wood ash can be used and is one of the preferred clarificant of India's small-scale producers. (Large-scale sugar processors firstly add lime to the juice in order to coagulate impurities which then settle out, and secondly add sulphur dioxide to neutralize the resulting acidity. [The addition of sodium hydrogen sulphate components at the end of the boiling process can also coagulate impurities and lighten the colour of the final product - and increase sulphur content].

2 - Boiling

This is done in large pans over open fires or simple furnaces. The essential requirement is for clean pans and tools. Sediment settles to the bottom of the pan during boiling and is dredged out. Scum rises to the top and is skimmed off. Both of these wastes are good for animal breeding [(78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87) and (66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76).]

100kg of boiled fresh juice is reduced to around 20kg of jaggery or gur. The end point of the boiling process is judged from experience - that is from the sight and sound of the boiling juice. Small samples can be removed to see if they set solid when cooled. Technically, this usually corresponds to a Brix (sugar content) of 90-95%.

After removal from the heat, the pans of juice are rapidly stirred to incorporate air and trigger an even crystallization. The cooling juice is then poured into pots or moulds to set.

4- Tools

Fine woven cloth are used for filtration. Scum can be removed from the boiling juice by a simple perforated scoop on a long handle. Sediments are removed by scraping a stretched cloth along the bottom of the pan. Once the pan has been removed from the heat, a rake is used to stir the thickened juice.

- LINKS TO EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS

Cleanliness is vital to the whole process above described. Once the juice has been heated, impurities will speed the 'inversion' of sugar and lead to reduced yields. All boiling pans and tools need to be thoroughly cleaned between uses. [Source], therefore, in order to produce a high quality fresh juice (and other final products) it is better to use modern equipment, which makes the control of cleanliness more easier.

Brazil, South Africa and India developed small-scale technology for sugar-cane crushing into fresh juice and correlative equipment to processing the juice into cane sugar.

The following link give an extensive presentation of manufacturers of crushing equipment in Europe, Asia, South America and Africa. This manufacturer market a compact sugarcane juice extractor for medium scale operator. For technology and equipment from South Africa click here. To have an idea on equipment pricing for small-scale equipment click here.

Next delivery (April 15, 2007) will give economics briefs about a small-scale operation to producing sugarcane juice.

MORE ON SUGAR CANE & PRODUCTS
1- Sugar Cane Industry, The (Cambridge Studies in Historical Geography)
by J.H. Galloway (Paperback Sep 23, 2005)
2- The House Surrounded by Sugar
by Leanna Williams (Paperback - Mar 8, 2006)
3- From Cane to Sugar (Start to Finish)
by Jill Braithwaite (Hardcover - Aug 2004)
4- Cane Sugar Handbook: A Manual for Cane Sugar Manufacturers and Their Chemists
by James C. P. Chen and Chung Chi Chou (Hardcover - Nov 8, 1993)
5-
Sugar Cane
by Alex Morgan (Paperback - Aug 28, 2002)
6- The Sugar cane factory: A catechism of cane sugar manufacture for the use of beginners
by Frederic I Scard (Unknown Binding - 1913)
7-
Sugar Cane Cultivation and Management
by Henk, Bakker and H., Bakker (Hardcover - Jan 1, 1999)
 

8- Sugar Cane (Tropical Agriculturalist)
by R. Fauconnier (Paperback - Feb 24, 1993)
9- Management Accounting for the Sugar Cane Industry (Sugar Sciences, Vol 8)
by A. E. Fok Kam (Hardcover - Mar 1988)
10- The nature and properties of the sugar cane
With practical directions for the improvement of its cultures, and the manufacture of its products)
by George Richardson Porter (Unknown Binding - 1831)
11- Sugar-cane and Sugar Industry in Nigeria
The Bitter Sweet Lessons
by Abdul-latif D. Busari (Paperback - Nov 2005)
12- The 2007-2012 World Outlook for Sugar Cane Mill Products
by Philip M. Parker (Paperback - Oct 13, 2006)

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