Businessafrica.net Newsletter ISSN 1563-4108
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AFRICABIZ VOL 1 - ISSUE: 80
DECEMBER 15, 2005 - JANUARY 14, 2006
Previous Issue
Editor: Dr. Bienvenu-Magloire Quenum
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A WORD FROM THE EDITOR


Dear visitor and international investor,


We warmly welcome you, if this is your first visit to Africabiz Online - The ultimate newsletter on trading and investing in 49 sub-Saharan African countries. If you are a regular and faithful reader, welcome back.

- HAPPY AND SUCCESSFUL BUSINESS YEAR 2006

Africabiz Online editorial team wishes you and your loved ones a very festive Christmas 2005-period; a happy and prosperous business year 2006.

- ORGANIZATION AND IMAGINATION

On the homepages of businessafrica.net and Africabiz Online it is boldly written: "There Is No Poor African Nation. Only Lack of Imagination And Mismanagement of Existing Assets...".

Yes, Dear Reader, Imagination makes everything possible as described in a previous issue titled: "Imagination And Organization: The Prerequisites To Building A Strong Economy".

Imagination is a powerful force to overcoming obstacles as here exposed by guest author David Cameron Gikandi.

Most of the time, African decision makers lack imagination to take advantage of existing assets in planning for the future of their countries. David's article is a motivation article that could help many to having dreams that would come true.


- Contributor's Guidelines are here to review. Your contribution on "How emerging nations and particularly African countries / entrepreneurs could bridge the developing gap" is welcome.

Your feedback / objection / contribution is welcome. Visit WorldWide BizCenter, and choose General Information (as topic) to create a thread for discussion. On the top of the WorldWide BizCenter page, there is a HELP link to assist you making an efficient use of the discussion board. This link also is useful


Many thanks for dropping by and see you here on January 15, 2006.

Dr. B.M. Quenum

Editor of AFRICABIZ

Contact Dr. Bienvenu-Magloire Quenum

BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES IN AFRICA


- Several business opportunities - component parts of the Integrated Developing Scheme described in Africans, Stop Being Poor! are listed in following table.


a- SHEA BUTTER (5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13)
b- BLUE GOLD (14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19)
c- FREEZE-DRIED PAPAIN (20, 21, 22 and here)
d- KENAF (23, 24)
e- VEGETABLE OIL (25, 26, 27, 28)
f- CEREALS (30, 31, 32, 33)
g- FRUITS (34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46)
h- ESSENTIAL OILS (47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52)
i- ROOTS & TUBERS (54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64)
j- FOWL BREEDING (66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76)
k- FISH FARMING (78, 79, 80, 81,

- FISH FARMING AS BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY: PART III - FISH-FARMING ECONOMICS

There are two ways to establishing fishing-farms: 1- Labor-intensive and 2- Capital-intensive.

In the first case, the cost of labor is, most of the time, the main factor to consider to keep production costs at bay. In capital-intensive ventures high feed costs are the primary limiting factor in terms of production costs.

A fishing-farm venture will be economically feasible if products can be produced and sold at competitive prices against other animal-protein sources (meat and chicken meat).

Economic considerations (particularly for capital intensive operations) can be divided into: 1- Preliminary Investment and Costs; 2- Production costs and 3- Processing and Marketing costs


PRELIMINARY INVESTMENT AND COSTS
- Initial facilities (ponds, alleys, wells, evacuation system)
- Buildings and equipment (tanks, filters, pumps, cooling system)
- Power sources (solar, fossil fuel, hydraulic)
- Maintenance
- Depreciation
- Taxes
- Interest on working capital
PRODUCTION COSTS
- Fish stock (eggs, fingerlings, spawners)
- Chemicals (disease control, additional fertilizer)
- Feed preparation and catering
- Labor
- Water pumping, oxygenation (and sometimes heating)
- Fuel (operation and transport)
- Miscellaneous supplies
- Harvesting
- Equipment (nets, lifts, tractors)
PROCESSING AND MARKETING COSTS
- Direct processing costs (fish fillets' production)
- Dispatching / Shipment to distributors

Depending on the size of a fish-farm, Preliminary Investment and Costs could require large capital input. However, the resulting high productivity level could help lowering production's costs. Therefore, a comprehensive feasibility study (and a detailed Business Plan) are necessary before any large capital investment in fish-farming is made; that is the need to have a detailed evaluation of the biologic, and economic constraints

A STRICT RECORD KEEPING

Onshore fish farming is carried out in ponds (small, large and huge ponds up to 4,000 sq. meter for industrial farms); marine (sea, lake and river) fish farming are based on immersed cages or nets.

Therefore, to yield steady production a fish-farmer needs to have an absolute control on the biologic and economic constraints - based on a strict record keeping of all variables involved - as briefly exposed on above table and in previous delivery.

Record keeping could be easily performed when the operation is on small-scale basis (one, two or three ponds - 10 to 20 sq meter each - for fingerlings and fry breeding, alevins and fish fattening). It becomes more difficult to carry out when the business is vertically integrated, comprising ten to hundreds large ponds (several hundreds up to thousand sq. meter in surface) including fry production, feed formulation and preparation, growing fish to market size of 700 to 900 g, and processing fish into fresh skinless boneless fillets, on site.

In such case, and even in small-scale operations, a fish-farmer would perform better if it could rely on a productivity tool that takes into accounts the slightest variation in the several criteria that have an impact on productivity and therefore on profits.

AQUACULTURE DECISION SUPPORT SOFTWARE / POND

Pond (Decision Support Systems) is a computer program developed to guide decision making processes pertaining to warmwater pond aquaculture. It is a valuable productivity tool that assists educators, managers, planners and researchers to quickly and accurately analyze aquaculture systems under different management regimes.

Pond helps simulating production scenarios (feeding variation, temperature discrepancies during production period, fish-densities and/or species combinations, specify stocking and harvest dates of individual lots, and either specify or allow the model to generate feeding and fertilization schedules, and water balance/flow descriptions through pond facilities.) In short, Pond assists in the development of optimal management and production strategies.

These strategies can be simulated by the use of either the simple or more complex models. Simple models are expected to be useful for planning/management purposes, and more complex models for short-term management and research applications. A graphics module is available for viewing the results of simulation runs. Click here to visit Pond makers' website and download the software for free.

Based on previous deliveries' contents, the next issue (January 15, 2006) will further consider Tilapia's breeding characteristics.

MORE ON FISH FARMING
1- How to Start and Manage a Fish Farming Business
by Jerre G. Lewis
2- Integrated Fish Farming
by Workshop on Integrated Fish Farming
3- Catfish farming handbook
by Jerry Mack Johnson
4- Commercial Catfish Farming
by Jasper S. Lee
5-
Cage Culture Of Tilapia
In Rural Farm Ponds

An article from: Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science [HTML]
(Digital - January 1, 2000)
6- Backyard Fish Farming
by Paul Bryant

7- Intensive Fish Farming
by Jonathan Shepherd, Niall Bromage
8- Second International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture:
by Thai International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture 1987 Bangkok, et al (Hardcover - January 1990)
9- Tilapia Culture
by Abdel-fattah M. El-sayed, A. F. M. Sayed (Hardcover - February 2006)
10- Tilapias: Biology and Exploitation
by M.C.M Beveridge (Editor), B. McAndrew (Editor)

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