Businessafrica.net Newsletter ISSN 1563-4108
Dr. QUENUM & ASSOCIATES
INVESTMENT AND BUSINESS PLANNERS
Tel: +1 440 941 5187
Click here for contact & support console


Click here to Purchase Africans, Stop Being Poor!
AFRICABIZ MONTHLY ISSUE - FRONTPAGE

Africabiz Online Home
Jobs Bidding
Current
Financing
Opportunities
Desktop Control
Add Links
Dynamic News
Developing News
MediaKit
FAQ
Contact-Support
Site Search by Freefind


Only US$12.75
Achetez Africains, Refusez de Rester Pauvres!


!

AFRICABIZ VOL 1 - ISSUE: 79
NOVEMBER 15 - DECEMBER 14, 2005
Previous Issue
Editor: Dr. Bienvenu-Magloire Quenum
Click here for contact & support console


Featured Article
Countries Briefs
Live News On Africa
Support Africabiz Online
Contact Information
Synopsis Rss Feed Sample
A Word From the Editor
Business Opportunities
FrontDoor
Your Feedback
Freebie For You
Control Your Desktop

A WORD FROM THE EDITOR


Dear visitor and international investor,


If this is your first visit to AFRICABIZ ONLINE Monthly Issue - The ultimate newsletter on trading and investing in 48 sub-Saharan African countries - we warmly welcome you. If you are a regular and faithful reader, welcome back.

- NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS ARE NOT YET FULLY INVOLVED IN AFRICAN COUNTRIES' DEVELOPING

Non governmental organizations (NGO) and Private NonProfit Institutions (PNPI) are nowadays important partners to developing.

They are involved in innumerable developing undertaking (health, education, agriculture development, etc.;) in sub-Saharan African countries. The NGO, which had substantial operating means, originated from developed countries (European Union, the United States of America and Japan).

African nationals had also established NGO, which are more involved in politics' matters (free press, free speech and Human Rights' Defence) and less in economic developing - for lack of proper funding.

Contrary to the NGO, PNPI are less involved in sub-Saharan African countries' developing. They are more "active" in North America, where they promote and develop citizen participation, social responsibility, and collective action in the resolution of societal problems.

North America's PNPI are linked to social service agencies, foundations and churches, to museums, schools, and professional associations.

Some of these North America's PNPI' have international branches. African nationals could benefit from their support and assistance to setup similar organizations in African countries.


Click here to read about Getting Grant Funding For Your Nonprofit Organization

- Contributor's Guidelines are here to review. Your contribution on "How emerging nations and particularly African countries / entrepreneurs could bridge the developing gap" is welcome.

Your feedback / objection / contribution is welcome. Visit WorldWide BizCenter, and choose General Information (as topic) to create a thread for discussion. On the top of the WorldWide BizCenter page, there is a HELP link to assist you making an efficient use of the discussion board. This link also is useful


Many thanks for dropping by and see you here on December 15, 2005.

Dr. B.M. Quenum

Editor of AFRICABIZ

Contact Dr. Bienvenu-Magloire Quenum

BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES IN AFRICA


- Several business opportunities - component parts of the Integrated Developing Scheme described in Africans, Stop Being Poor! are listed in following table.


a- SHEA BUTTER (5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13)
b- BLUE GOLD (14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19)
c- FREEZE-DRIED PAPAIN (20, 21, 22 and here)
d- KENAF (23, 24)
e- VEGETABLE OIL (25, 26, 27, 28)
f- CEREALS (30, 31, 32, 33)
g- FRUITS (34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46)
h- ESSENTIAL OILS (47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52)
i- ROOTS & TUBERS (54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64)
j- FOWL BREEDING (66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76)
k- FISH FARMING (78, 79, 80,

- FISH FARMING AS BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY: PART II - CONSTRAINTS TO FISH FARMING

Fish farming is an economic activity that generates environmental pollution, "crop" diseases and toxicity induced by chemical used to treat or minimize diseases.

Before exposing - in forthcoming deliveries - fish farming's economics (small and medium range operations) we shall briefly discuss here about said constraints and review their impact on productivity.

FISH FARMING'S POLLUTION

Onshore fish farming is carried out in ponds (small, large and huge ponds up to 4,000 sq. meter for industrial farms); marine (sea, lake and river) fish farming are based on immersed cages or nets.

Both categories generate environmental pollution:

1 - Organic pollution that results from fish's excrement, waste from excess food supplied to the fish, deceased fish (mortality) and blood spills (if harvested fish are bled and prepared on site);

2- Chemical pollution originating from antibiotics, drugs, pesticides, feed additives, paints used on net cages and boats to prevent marine growth (antifouling paints), and disinfectants used to combat fish's diseases.

In the case of marine fish farming the pollution is directly discharged into the sea, the lake or the river; when in the case of onshore fish farming it remains "in place" and accumulates in the water and at the bottom of the pond.

The amount of feces produced depends on feed's formulation. In the case of marine salmon farms for instance studies shows that up to 25 to 50 percent of feed consumed can end up as feces.

- EFFICIENT FISH FARMING PRACTICE

Based on above briefly described constraints, one sees that efficient fish farming would require a strict control of pollution and fish mortality.

Let us concentrate - for sub-Saharan African countries - on onshore ponds' fish farming practices for common fish species such as carp, tilapia and catfish. These are species that first do not need to be fed with large quantities of fish meal and second that are vegetarian fresh water species.

A fundamental precaution is to constantly feed the fish with selected vegetables and put some kind of plastic netting over the ponds to avoid the ponds to be swamped by 'non eatable' leaves; to remove to remove fallen leaves and dead fish from the pound and do not let them rot inside.

In short, pollution's control would require freshwater onshore fish farmers to use the minimum of artificial feed and give more importance to organic feeding; to use small quantities of chemical for disease's treatment - to minimize resulting water toxicity and therefore lower fish mortality.

Some operators succeeded raising in the same pond bass, carp, catfish and tilapia. The sun and the catfish feces stimulate the growth of phytoplankton, which feed the other species and keep the water relatively clean, with no need to discharge wastes.

However, it is also a good practice to completely harvest pond every 24 months and remove silt that accumulated at the bottom and use it as fertilizer to grow vegetables. Chinese are masters (since 2,000 years) in eco-friendly fish farming technology that wastes nothing

- DISEASES' CONTROL

Parasites infestation is a chronic problem in fish farming. In the case of warm water (25°C -29°C) fish farming (catfish and tilapia) it is compulsory to keep the ponds free of leaves, blood spills, oils, non eatable vegetable debris and dead fish.

One should find a balance in antibiotic (concentration) used to treat fish against diseases and the resulting toxicity in order to avoid a greater percentage of dead fish.

- FISH FARMING IS A TREMENDOUS OPPORTUNITY FOR AFRICAN COMMUNITIES

To conclude, let us assert here that setting up a fish farm is simpler, less expensive and more profitable than one may think. Therefore, it is a complete aberration that most landlocked sub-Saharan African countries are importing fish. Villages could setup ponds and raise fish for subsistence consumption and commercial purposes.

Indeed, small sized fish farming operations that produce - at full capacity - 60 metric tons of fish per year, in small water-ponds (50sq meter) are good business opportunities with Gross Profit in the range of US$ 5,000 to 10,000 per year - according to the species of fish.

Based on figures reported in previous paragraph, one could easily imagine the economic impact that would result from the setup of 1,000 small fish farming operations on the territory of an African country. That means the production of 60,000 metric tons of fresh fish per year and revenues in the range of US$ 5,000,000 to US$ 10,000,000 to the operators.

Africabiz Online's next deliveries will deal with tilapia and catfish economics.


MORE ON FISH FARMING
1- How to Start and Manage a Fish Farming Business
by Jerre G. Lewis
2- Integrated Fish Farming
by Workshop on Integrated Fish Farming
3- Catfish farming handbook
by Jerry Mack Johnson
4- Commercial Catfish Farming
by Jasper S. Lee
5-
Cage Culture Of Tilapia
In Rural Farm Ponds

An article from: Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science [HTML]
(Digital - January 1, 2000)
6- Backyard Fish Farming
by Paul Bryant

7- Intensive Fish Farming
by Jonathan Shepherd, Niall Bromage
8- Second International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture:
by Thai International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture 1987 Bangkok, et al (Hardcover - January 1990)
9- Tilapia Culture
by Abdel-fattah M. El-sayed, A. F. M. Sayed (Hardcover - February 2006)
10- Tilapias: Biology and Exploitation
by M.C.M Beveridge (Editor), B. McAndrew (Editor)

Adobe Acrobat Reader is available here
Locations of visitors to this page

- Interested parties - private African and international investors / companies, government agencies, international development agencies - to make contact through the Free Access Support Console available at this link

Contact through the support console will get quickest reply from Africabiz Online's staff, than contact by emails. Click here for contact information. Be advised that first contact should be through the support console to be followed by phone calls. If you are a VIP-Member, use VIP-Members Support Console available here.
Before you consult please click here to review this clarification

CLICK HERE TO BID ON JOBS AND PROJECTS
AFRICA'S DYNAMIC NEWS HEADLINES

COUNTRIES BRIEFS

SEARCHING FOR SUCCESS IN HOME BUSINESS?
YOU NEED A COMPUTER & THE RIGHT KNOWLEDGE & TIPS

Click Here to Download Free eBooks for Successful Home Business