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AFRICABIZ VOL 1 - ISSUE: 68
DECEMBER 15, 2004 - JANUARY 14, 2005
Previous Issue
Editor: Dr. Bienvenu-Magloire Quenum
editor@africabiz.org
Featured Article
Countries Briefs
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A Word From the Editor
Business Opportunities
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A WORD FROM THE EDITOR


Dear visitor and international investor,


We warmly welcome you, if this is your first visit to Africabiz Online - The ultimate newsletter on trading and investing in 49 sub-Saharan African countries. If you are a regular and faithful reader, welcome back.

- HAPPY AND SUCCESSFUL BUSINESS YEAR 2005

Africabiz Online editorial team wishes you and your loved ones a very festive Yule 2004-period; a happy and prosperous business year 2005.


- AFRICABIZ INTERACTIVE

In previous issues we announced the setup of Africabiz InterActive that gives the possibility to visitors to comments on articles posted in Africabiz Online Monthly deliveries. Unfortunately, the engine that is now powering Africabiz InterActive is submitted to hackers attacks that flood the website with irrelevant memberships only to get a better listing of their websites with search engine.

In few days times we are deploying another more secure engine and Africabiz InteraActive shall be backed online.

Your feedback / objection / contribution is welcome. Visit WorldWide BizCenter, and choose General Information (as topic) to create a thread for discussion. On the top of the WorldWide BizCenter page, there is a HELP link to assist you making an efficient use of the discussion board. This link also is useful


Many thanks for dropping by and see you here on January 15, 2005.


Dr. B.M. Quenum

Editor of AFRICABIZ
Contact Dr. Bienvenu-Magloire Quenum

BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES IN AFRICA


- Several business opportunities - component parts of the Integrated Developing Scheme described in Africans, Stop Being Poor! are listed in following table.


a- SHEA BUTTER (5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13)
b- BLUE GOLD (14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19)
c- FREEZE-DRIED PAPAIN (20, 21, 22 and here)
d- KENAF (23, 24)
e- VEGETABLE OIL (25, 26, 27, 28)
f- CEREALS (30, 31, 32, 33)
g- FRUITS (34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46)
h- ESSENTIAL OILS (47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52)
i- ROOTS & TUBERS (54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64)
j- FOWL BREEDING (66, 67, 68, 69,

- FOWL BREEDING AS BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY: PART III - INTRODUCTION TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A MEDIUM SCALE POULTRY BREEDING OPERATION

Last delivery starts a new series of "Business Opportunities" dedicated to fowl breeding. A brief general introduction about duck breeding shows how it is possible to start cheap with few couples of animals and grow big fast.

South Africa's poultry industry is 93% self sufficient.
The per capita egg consumption in South Africa is 5.5 kg. The highest of the continent. In the contrary as shown in Table 4, the rest of the African continent is a net importer of chicken meat for 90% of the demand.

Owing to the fact that other sub-Saharan African countries (around 650 million people) are net importers to the level of 90% of the demand, one could estimate the potential market existing in Africa to be in the range of [460,000 divided by 43 and multiplied by 650] = 6,953,500 metric tons for poultry meat and [342,000 divided by 43 and multiplied by 650] = 5,169,800 metric tons for eggs.

Both products representing a total minimum market value of around 20 billions US$ per year.


The development of poultry breeding industries (through a combination of small scale family operations and big broilers corporations) would provide jobs and revenues to rural folks around the continent, develop food industries related to poultry meat and egg transformation, help solving the hunger problem, participate in boosting the global developing of African nations. And help African states garnering substantial budget revenues through taxes.

Therefore, in spite of the unfair competition exercised by import from Europe, there are opportunities throughout the continent to establish chicken breeding companies to cater for national demands provided that operators take necessary managerial and production decisions to control costs of production.

- CHOICE OF PRODUCTION FOR A SMALL-SCALE CHICKEN BREEDING OPERATION

Chicken breeding could be carried out either as a small scale family business (1,200 to 5,000 animals bred per year), at a medium scale industrial basis (50,000 to 200,000 animals bred per year) or at very large intensive scale (up to several millions of animal bred per year).

An efficient chicken breeding operation in any African country cannot be specialized in a unique production like in developed countries where operations use to breed either only broilers or layers. An operation that intends to supply a small African community should cover the whole demand of the population that is provide broilers and eggs, which means that the operation should breed a mixture of broilers and layers.

Well bred (good medical follow-up to stem out diseases) and well fed layers lay one egg per day starting from seven months age. They are normally reformed and slaughtered as broilers when they reach the age of 18 months.

To establish the breeding stock, one needs to purchase "one" day old chicks, which are fragile animals. You may acquire Robert Plamondon's book titled: Success with baby chick that provides all information for a successful breeding operation. This website also provide information and sell baby chicks. And this one gives an idea of the cost of purchasing "one" day or baby chicks. French speaking people may found useful information on an existing operation right here.

In previous delivery, a briefs was given about chicken breeds suitable for tropical areas and the origin of the breeds.

- BRIEFS ABOUT THE BREEDING PERIOD FROM BABY CHICK TO FAT CHICKEN

.Let us now review the breeding period for a baby broiler chicken and a baby layer as well from the early stage of baby to the last stage when the bird is ready to be slaughtered. Baby chickens bred in tropical areas are generally either imported as baby chickens or born on the farming compound from imported incubated eggs. Breeds of chicken suitable for tropical areas are reported here.

BROILER:
The baby broiler chicken goes through three biological growth steps to reaching its full slaughtering weight - usually around 2 kg - after 10 to 12 weeks with a feeding-conversion rate of 2.6 to 3. These steps are:

1- The early baby stage: up to 4 weeks during which the bird has to be under intensive care as it is very sensitive to high temperatures. The temperature should be maintained between 30°C and 34°C and the feed is a special one called baby chicken provender.

2- The growth stage: that lasts also 4 weeks during which the bird is fed with a feed that facilitates its growth rate and is called flesh building provender.

3- The bird fattening or finishing stage: that covers 3 to 4 weeks during which the bird build up a firm fresh structure to reaching the slaughtering weight of 2,000 grams or above according to the breed.

At this stage, the bird does not support temperature above 25°C. The air system should be controlled and the breeding space efficiently fanned to remove toxic gas. The hygrometry must be kept between 60% to 70% and the density of birds to 6 to 7 birds per square meter.

Throughout the three growing stages, it is compulsory to have a strict medicinal follow-up. The lack of such surveillance would result in disaster as the birds are prone to a string of diseases (Mareck; Gumboro, Newcastle disease, aviary Bronchitis, Typhose, aviary Cholera and other parasite's infections) that should be controlled if one does not want to loose the investment in money and hard work.

LAYER:
The layer chicken bird is more fragile that the broiler. It also goes through three steps growing stages:

1- The early baby stage: that lasts up to 7 to 8 weeks. The bird is fed with egg-laying provender with strict medicinal care: vaccinations against diseases, and temperature kept between 30°C to 34°C.

2- The pullet stage: 8 to 22 weeks, that is from the third to the sixth months of breeding.

During that "lengthy" period , the bird is prepared to become a layer; fed with pullet provender and submitted to a strict medicinal control; temperature is kept at 25°C and the luminescence made bright for 14 hours followed by 10 hours of obscurity.

3- The layer stage: that lasts from the seventh month to the eighteen months (12 months) during which the bird, if well taken care of during the two previous stages, should lay an egg per day.

During that period it is fed with laying provender. Temperature kept at 25°C, hygrometry between 65-67%. Luminescence: 12 hours of brightness followed by 12 hours of obscurity and well fanned breeding space and expulsion of contaminated air.

After 12 months of loyal service as a laying bird, the layer is normally reformed as broiler and sent to slaughterhouse.

The layer bird is sensitive to the same kinds of diseases as above short listed for the broiler bird just below the above light-green colored caption.

To summarize, a successful chicken breeder should take necessary measures:


1- To control costs of production particularly the cost of feed as feeding conversion ratio stands at 2,6 to 3.

2- To have a strict sanitary control of the breeding space. To refresh the air atmosphere through a perfect fanning of the space and expulsion of contaminated air to avoid the accumulation of toxic gas; and regular removal of birds' dejection.

3- To treat the birds against the several diseases, which occurrence could jeopardize the operation killing the whole flock.

In next delivery we shall consider the Organization of the Breeding Process for a Medium Scale Operation

MORE ON FOWL BREEDING
1- Poultry Breeding and Genetics
by R.D. Crawford
2- The Dollar Hen: The Classic Guide to American Free-Range Farming
by Milo M. Hastingd, Robert Plamondon
3- Small-Scale Poultry-Keeping: A Guide To Free-Range Poultry Production
by Ray Feltwell
4- The Encyclopedia of Farm Animal Nutrition
by M.F. Fuller, et al
5-
The Mating and Breeding of Poultry
by Harry M. Lamon, Rob R. Slocum
6- Modern Livestock and Poultry Production
by James R. Gillespie

7- Success With Baby Chicks: A Complete Guide to Hatchery Selection
by Robert Plamondon
8- The Classic Guide To Poultry Nutrition:
Chickens, Turkeys, Ducks, Geese, Gamebirds, and Pigeons
by Gustave F. Hauser
9- The Strange History of The Ostrich
In Fashion, Food and Fortune
by Rob Nixon
10- Ostrich's Avian Incubation: Behaviour, Environment and Evolution
by D. Charles Deeming

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