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AFRICABIZ VOL 1 - ISSUE: 56
DECEMBER 15, 2003 - JANUARY 14, 2004
Previous Issue
Editor: Dr. Bienvenu-Magloire Quenum
editor@africabiz.org
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A WORD FROM THE EDITOR


Dear visitor and international investor,


We warmly welcome you, if this is your first visit to Africabiz Online - The ultimate newsletter on trading and investing in 49 sub-Saharan African countries. If you are a regular and faithful reader, welcome back.

HAPPY AND SUCCESSFUL BUSINESS YEAR 2004

We at AFRICABIZ ONLINE wish you and your loved ones a very festive Yule 2003-period; a happy and prosperous business year 2004

- NEW URLs FOR AFRICABIZ WEBSITES

For efficient management purposes, the URLs to AFRICABIZ various websites had been modified as from end of October 2003. New URLs read as follows:

1- Africabiz Consulting or Dr. Quenum and Associates:
http://businessafrica.net

2- AFRICABIZ Online:
http://africabiz.org

3- AFRICABIZ Forum / The Electronic MarketPlace:

http://businessafrica.net/bizboard/

Click here to read about: Annual Growth Rate Below 10% is not Enough

- Contributor's Guidelines are here to review. Your contribution on "How African countries / entrepreneurs could bridge the developing gap" is welcome.

Many thanks for dropping by and see you here on January 15, 2004.


Dr. B.M. Quenum

Editor of AFRICABIZ
Contact Dr. Bienvenu-Magloire Quenum

BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES IN AFRICA

- Several business opportunities - component parts of the Integrated Developing Scheme described in Africans, Stop Being Poor! are listed in following table.

a- SHEA BUTTER (Issues 5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13)
b- BLUE GOLD (Issues 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19)
c- FREEZE-DRIED PAPAIN (Issues 20, 21, 22 and here)
d- KENAF (Issues 23, 24)
e- VEGETABLE OIL (Issues 25, 26, 27 and 28)
f- CEREALS (Issues 30, 31, 32, 33)
g- FRUITS (34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46)
h- ESSENTIAL OILS (47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52)
i- ROOTS & TUBERS 54, 55)

- INTRODUCTION TO TROPICAL ROOTS AND TUBERS: III - PREPARATION OF ROOTS TO PRODUCING VALUE ADDED PRODUCTS - A - CHIPS AND PELLETS

Cassava, potato, and sweet potato rank among the top 10 food crops produced in developing countries. Sub-Saharan Africa - SSA - is expected to experience the fastest growth in food demand for all roots and tubers, largely driven by rapid population's growth. SSA share in the total demand for developing countries will be 53 percent, with cassava accounting for two-thirds of the increase.

The series
started with the delivery available here and deals with the processing of the raw material. Cultivation techniques and particularities are not considered. Here available is a report on how to develop Cassava as a strategic crop

Rare are industrial concerns established in SSA countries that transform Cassava into value added products - as reported in the diagram available here

- FRESH CASSAVA HAD A SHORT LIVE

While Yam roots can be stored for a lengthy period up to 12 months (that is the case in Benin) and still keep physical integrity and taste, Cassava roots are more perishable. They deteriorate very quickly soon after harvest and this occurs in two separate phases:

Physiological or primary deterioration, which begins within 24 hours after harvest and is characterized by blue or brown discoloration of the vascular bundles of the roots, called "vascular streaking".

Microbial or secondary deterioration
. Usually occurs 5-7 days after harvest and involves a wide spectrum of fungi and bacteria which develop in the flesh, causing a variety of wet and dry rots.

The rapid post-harvest deterioration of Cassava roots represents a problem for the supply chain to processing plants. It is particularly difficult to set up buffer stock. In traditional small-scale processing the conservation is done immersing the peeled roots in fresh water, which is renewed once a day for three days running. That is an avenue to explore for buffer stock setting to large-scale processing. For more on how to handle fresh cassava prior to processing, click here

- BRIEFS ON THE PREPARATION OF CASSAVA PRIOR TO CHIPS AND PELLETS' PRODUCTION

The root of cassava and the leaves contain cyanogenic glucocides that are dangerous for human or animal consumption. These cyanide components have to be removed before the root and the leaves can be consumed. The toxic cyanide component are concentrated into the peel of cassava root. The ratio of glucocides compared to the starchy flesh varying between 5-10 : 1. Hence, for a root composed of 15% peel with a total cyanide content of 950 mg/kg (fresh weight basis) and 35 mg/kg in the flesh, 83% of the total cyanide is removed by peeling (Source)

The traditional processing techniques of chips are laborious. In villages women wash, peel and cut the root to pieces that are dried by sunshine on flat surface; on roofs, concrete surfaces, mats or along roadsides. One person can handle 25 kg of roots per hour and the loss of weight could reach 25-30 % of the initial weight of the fresh root. Mechanical peeling had been developed in Thailand, the Philippines and Indonesia that reduce the loss of weight to 10-15%.

Wind is a fundamental factor during the drying process, which comprises two phases.

- First phase: the chips lose moisture very quickly down to about 20% of moisture content (mc), wind speed passing over the chips is more important than air temperature and relative humidity. Under cloudy weather or even at night, the first drying phase can be completed so long as there is sufficient air movement through the chips.

- Second phase: drying is much slower and needs a relative humidity of not higher than 65% to dry the chips to a moisture content of 13% that is considered safe for long term storage. Except during periods of actual rain, in most places the temperature will increase sufficiently during the day to reduce ambient humidity to the required level to complete this second stage of drying. [For more click here]

The use of solar dryers helps obtaining homogenous dried cassava chips. Solar dryers drawing exist on the Internet that could be locally produced. There are commercial sun dryers manufactured and sold in France, Thailand, Indonesia and the Philippines. Small-scale drying technologies are available here in ADOBE PDF. Solar dryers of the cabinet type are referred to as Brace dryer. It is a wooden structure covered with plastic sheets that form the solar collector. On days with adequate sunshine, average temperatures are of the order of 65 to 75C, which is suitable for a variety of products, such as vegetables, grain, meat as well as cassava chips. For an extensive description of improved solar dryers of Brace type click here and here for an excellent books' review or crops drying

Producing pellets and chips on large-scale are opportunities not to be missed by African countries. Cassava pellets will help not only developing livestock's production, but can be used to produce glues and alcohol that are currently imported from abroad in most African countries.

In next issue 57 Investment data will be considered for chips and pellets production.

MORE ON ROOTS AND TUBERS
1- Roots & Tubers Market in Qatar
2- Roots & Tubers Market in Europe
3- Food Security: In Sub-Saharan Africa
In Latin America and the Caribbean
4- Roots and Tubers: A Vegetable Cookbook
by Kyle D. Fulwiler
5-
Tuber Crops
by N. M. Nayar

6- Roots, Tubers, Plantains and Bananas in Animal Feeding
Proceedings of the Fao Expert Consultation Held in Ciat, Cali, Colombia 21-25 January 1991
7- Pest Management for Tropical Roots & Tubers Workshop on the Global Status of and Prospects
8- The Tropical Tuber Crops
Yam, Cassava, Sweet Potato, and Cocoyams by I. Chukuma Onwueme

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