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AFRICABIZ VOL 1 - ISSUE: 51
JULY 15 - AUGUST 14, 2003
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Editor: Dr. Bienvenu-Magloire Quenum
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A WORD FROM THE EDITOR


Dear visitor and international investor,


We warmly welcome you, if this is your first visit to Africabiz Online - The ultimate newsletter on trading and investing in 49 sub-Saharan African countries. If you are a regular and faithful reader, welcome back.

- IN IVORY COAST THE NATIONAL ARMY AND THE REBELS DECIDED TO BURY THE WAR HATCHET

On July 4, 2003, the "Loyalists" - in other words the remain of the former national Army of Ivory Coast, which backed the government of President Laurent Gbagbo since the failed coup of September 19, 2002 - and the Army of the Rebels, which challenged Gbagbo's power, decided, unexpectedly and suddenly , to bury the war hatchet.

The Reconcilement Government, provided for by the Linas-Marcoussis Agreement, is in change since March 2003 without the appointment of the ministries of Defense and Security. President Gbagbo adamantly refusing to grant said positions to the Rebels.

Beginning of July 2003 Gbagbo asked the chiefs of the two armies to harmonize their positions and propose two high rank military-men for the ministerial positions of Security and Defense.

Unexpectedly the delegation of the two armies comes up with a declaration in which they refuse to select anyone from the "Army" for said positions. Furthermore, they asked Gbagbo "to appoint as soon as possible" the two ministers as laid down in the Linas-Marcoussis and Accra Agreements. And most extraordinary they declared the war over.

The Army's declaration dated July 4, 2003 sounds like a ultimatum to president Gbagbo.


In brief, Ivory Coast's Military decided to impose peace on Gbagbo and the politicians. No doubt the event is to be marked with red ink and will have a positive impact to accelerating the end of the political crisis.
Without the backing of the "loyalists", Gbagbo is now on tight rope. Either he falls in line completely and stops maneuvering to impeach the full implementation of Marcoussis Agreement, and survive till the next presidential ballot of end 2005; or he and his followers activists continue the brinkmanship game of fighting against Marcoussis Agreement and he will be very soon in serious political trouble.

Doubtless, with the astounding declaration of the army forces, on July 4, 2003, the road to peace in Ivory Coast is cleared even if a bumpy one. And that is a good new for the west Africa region

- AFRICA MUST EMBRACE THE GENETICS REVOLUTION

Africa did not participate to the development of the industrial revolution. It is striving now to be part of the Information Technology one. It should not miss the opportunity to be a player in the Genetics Revolution. Emerging countries like India and China understood the challenge and are taking necessary steps not to be let aside. Africa can and must do the same.

Professor Doherty said: "Double helix is the shape of things to come...If we are to be responsible citizens, we must all learn more about genetics."

Africa's decision makers will do a good job taking the necessary steps to pave the way for African countries to enter the revolution of the century. Otherwise, Africa will be blew off; let aside for good and remain under the political, economic and social domination of the western European countries and the United States of America. Click here for more

- Contributor's Guidelines are here for review. Your contribution on "How African countries / entrepreneurs could bridge the developing gap" is welcome.

Many thanks for dropping by and see you here on August 15, 2003


Dr. B.M. Quenum

Editor of AFRICABIZ
Contact Dr. Bienvenu-Magloire Quenum

BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES IN AFRICA


- Several business opportunities - component parts of the Integrated Developing Scheme described in Africans, Stop Being Poor! are listed in following table.


a- SHEA BUTTER (Issues 5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13)
b- BLUE GOLD (Issues 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19)
c- FREEZE-DRIED PAPAIN (Issues 20, 21, 22 and here)
d- KENAF (Issues 23, 24)
e- VEGETABLE OIL (Issues 25, 26, 27 and 28)
f- CEREALS (Issues 30, 31, 32, 33)
g- FRUITS (34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46)
h- ESSENTIAL OILS (47, 48, 49, 50)

- TROPICAL FLOWERS AND FRAGRANCE PLANTS AGRIBUSINESS AS INCOME BUILDING POWER FOR AN AFRICAN COMMUNITY: PART - V - INDUSTRIAL SCALE PRODUCTION OF ESSENTIAL OILS - PRODUCTION ESTIMATES OF EXISTING PLANTATIONS IN MALAWI

Essential oils are odorous products from natural raw materials such as leaves, fruits, roots and wood of many seasonal or perennial plants. They are of complex composition and contain alcohol, aldehydes, ketones, phenols, esters, ethers, and turpenes in varying proportions. An estimated 3,000 essential oils exist of which around 300 are of commercial importance. Most of them obtained from agricultural plants, but some 28 essential oils collected in commercial quantities from wild sources Here is a short-list of essential oils and the plants they originated from; with the main producing countries.

To give an idea of the complex mixture of chemical ingredients present in essential oils, the chemical composition of Geranium essential oil is exposed here

- WHY AFRICAN COUNTRIES SHOULD CONSIDER ESSENTIAL OILS INDUSTRY

The size of essential oils' market exposed in Issue 47 averages US$ 8 billion export a year and increases at the annual rate of 10.9%. Africa' share is less than 1% of that market. Doubtless, there is room for Africa to have a better portion of the cake and kill two birds with one stone.

Indeed, most sub-Saharan African countries suffer recurrent drought, which results in desertification of their territories. A well planned and carried out reforestation policy is the answer to the problem. Trees species, which are raw material to produce aromatic oils should be planted. The most promising speculations are essential oils from: Geranium, Citronella, Lemongrass or Sweet calamus, Eucalyptus.
(See Issue 47 for briefs about said plants)

Once an essential oil industry set up in a sub-Saharan African country, it opens the way to develop other business opportunities: foods, cosmetics, detergent, pesticides, pharmaceuticals; and contribute to the Self-Inducing And Accelerating Impact Factoror Synergetic Impact Factor to speeding up the economic development of said country.

The condition to develop essential oils' industry, on small, medium or large-scale basis, is of course the availability of the raw material. Agricultural development of the raw materials (plants, seeds, nuts here listed) used to produce essential oils are not considered in this delivery. People interested in the matter should refer to other sources for data and information. Only exposed are cultural technical information and investment data necessary to the setup of the industry.

In sub-Saharan African countries, Malawi is the one country that already has plantations of Eucalyptus (15,000 ha); Lemongrass (3,200 ha) and Citronella (2,800 ha).

- MALAWI'S PLANTATIONS PRODUCTION ESTIMATE

Let us consider an operation in Malawi to produce essential oils of Eucalyptus, Lemongrass and Citronella. Before the exposition of the investment amount required, we need to know more about the production's estimates of the various essential oil generating plants available in Malawi. Estimates below briefly outlined are either from Dr. Quenum & Asssociates' private information and data; or from other referenced sources

1- EUCALYPTUS: The Eucalyptus' plantations in Malawi are used mainly to produce: a - Fire wood b- Poles for electricity network. The leaves are not extensively used to produce essential oil.

a- A matured Eucalyptus tree in Malawi's plantations bears in average 13 kg of leaves suitable for the production of Eucalyptus essential oil. Each hectare of plantation has 1,600 trees. Therefore each matured plantation of one hectare of Eucalyptus yields in average 20,800 kg of Eucalyptus leaves.

b- Taking into account that branches and leaves are produced by the stub of a cut tree
within a period of 6 months, a new harvest of leaves can take place every six months averaging 3.5 to 4 kg per "stub". Which means that in average, considering matured cut trees and stubs together the production of one hectare of Eucalyptus plantation per year is equal to [13 kg + (3.5 kg x2)] x 1,600 = 32,000 kg

c- Let us consider that 300 hectares of Eucalyptus plantations (that is to say a tiny amount of existing 15,000 hectares) are used for the essential oil production operation. The raw material available (Eucalyptus leaves) is then 32 metric tons x 300 = 9,600 metric tons.

d- The yield of essential oil originating from Eucalyptus leaves is 1%. 9,600 metric tons shall produce: 96 metric tons of Eucalyptus essential oil. Or conservatively: 96,000 / 0,8770 = 109,464 liters of Eucalyptus essential oil. (Relative density at 20° C: 0,8592 - 0,8770)

2- LEMONGRASS: Lemongrass is ready for harvest 90 days after planting. Plots' planting and management therefore allow for 5-6 cuttings a year depending upon soil and climatic conditions. The grass is cut 10 cm above the ground level and the crop can be retained in the field for 5 to 6 years. Depending upon the planting period, one or two cuttings are taken in the first year and from second year onwards, 3-4 cuttings are available. Harvesting consists of fresh leaves and also the dry or semidried leaves at intervals of 60 days. The crop should not be allowed to flower profusely as it reduces the overall yield. [Source]

The yield of essential oil originating from lemongrass' cuts is .4% in weight. There are enough lemongrass acreage in Malawi [3,200 ha] o obtaining 7,000 metric tons of fresh cut per year to producing 28 metric tons of lemeongrass essential oil or 32,000 liters.


3- CITRONELLA: A tall aromatic grass related to lemongrass. Harvesting is usually six to eight months after planting, just prior to flowering. Three to five harvests per year are possible depending on technical cultural conditions and management. The duration of a well managed agribusiness plantation could reach 10 years, before the plots are planted again.

The yield of essential oil originating from citronella's cuts is 1% in weight. There are 2,800 ha of citronella plantations in Malawi, which can supply 7,,000 metric tons of fresh cut a year to producing 70 metric tons of essential oil or 78,000 liters [Relative density at 20° C: 0,883 - 0,900]

Next issue 52 will expose investment data about an industrial scale operation to producing Eucalyptus, Geranium and Lemongrass essential oils based on production estimates above briefly outlined.

MORE ON ESSENTIAL OILS
1- Essential Oils Desk Reference
By Essential Science Publishing (Hardcover - Oct 2007)
2- The Complete Book of Essential Oils and Aromatherapy: Over 600 Natural, Non-Toxic and Fragrant Recipes
By Valerie Ann Worwood (Paperback - Mar 1, 1993)
3- The Essential Oils Book: Creating Personal Blends for Mind & Body
By Colleen K. Dodt (Paperback - Jan 3, 1996)
4- Essential Oils Pocket Reference 3rd Edition (Spiral Bound 2004, 3rd Edition) (Spiral-bound - 2004) - Unabridged
5- Releasing Emotional Patterns with Essential Oils
By Carolyn L. Mein (Paperback - Sep 1, 1998)
6- Essential Oils Integrative Medical Guide: Building Immunity, Increasing Longevity, and Enhancing Mental Performance
By D. Gary Young N.D. and Ronald M. Lawrence M.D. Ph.D. (Hardcover - April 1, 2003)
7- Quick Reference Guide for Using Essential Oils2006 10th Edition
By Connie and Alan Higley (Spiral-bound - 2006)
8- Magical Oils by Moonlight: Understand Essential Oils, Their Blends and Uses; Choose the Appropriate Day
By Maya Heath (Paperback - April 2004)

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