Businessafrica.net Newsletter ISSN 1563-4108
Dr. QUENUM & ASSOCIATES
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AFRICABIZ VOL 1 - ISSUE: 49
MAY 15 - JUNE 14, 2003
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Editor: Dr. Bienvenu-Magloire Quenum
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A WORD FROM THE EDITOR


Dear visitor and international investor,


We warmly welcome you, if this is your first visit to Africabiz Online - The ultimate newsletter on trading and investing in 49 sub-Saharan African countries. If you are a regular and faithful reader, welcome back.

The Section about Business Opportunities In Africa deals with the production methods and processes of essential oils. Click here for more. Prior to the exposition in Issue 50 of a small scale operation to producing marketable pure essential oil right from your kitchen table!

- NEW ELECTRONIC MARKETPLACE TO TRADE AND INVEST IN AND OUT AFRICA

AFRICABIZ Forum upgraded to a new version of the Discusware platform. More user-friendly than the old one. Click here to start posting - for free - bids and offers for equipment, tropical products, financing research and proposals, business development. You have 10 Topics at your disposal to promoting your business worldwide and in and out Africa.

  • AGRIBUSINESS
  • INDUSTRIALIZATION
  • ENERGY
  • PHARMACEUTICALS
  • CONSTRUCTION
  • INTERNATIONAL TRADE
  • AFRICAN HARBORS ACTIVITIES
  • AFRICAN AIRPORTS ACTIVITIES
  • PROJECT FINANCING
  • GENERAL INFORMATION
  • Each Topic divided into 2 to 5 specific Sub-Topics plus a Miscellaneous Sub-Topic. New messages can only be inserted into one proper Topic and Subtopic; or into the Miscellaneous folder of said Topic. That way the messages' board kept orderly and tidy. And the management made easier for Board's manager and moderators. Messages queued and reviewed by moderators to avoid bizarre postings. AFRICABIZ Forum is a strictly English speaking platform. Messages in other languages deleted..

    Please do pay a visit to the System Announcement page to review "Basic Rules and Instructions" and use freely the Electronic Marketplace to do business worldwide.

    - SOME CLARIFICATION ABOUT FINANCING RESEARCH AS PERFORMED BY BusinessAfrica™ / Dr. QUENUM & ASSOCIATES

    Dr. Quenum & Associates / Dynamic Group, LTD are in the business of financing research for more than a decade. Starting from 1999, they setup BusinessAfrica.net to make use of the Internet. A formidable tool to promote and develop business worldwide 24 hours around the clock.

    The Internet lowers the costs to managing the business. Clients, loan researchers, make contact easily through Businessafrica.net platform, read posted instruction and documentation about financing ; and contact Dr. Quenum & Associates / Dynamic Group, LTD.

    Clients forward Executive Summary and other preliminary documentation to Dr. Quenum & Associates / Dynamic Group, LTD on a fly as attachment to an email. Everything done just punching the Send Mail button from one's computer. It is fast. Client do not need to send snail mail and wait for weeks to get a reply.

    Therefore, some clients, loan researchers (not all of them thanks God) expect a fast outcome for the result of their loan application. They expect everything done through the Internet and loan conditions (interest rate, loan period, grace period) sent to them as soon as the application introduced to Dr. Quenum & Associates / Dynamic Group, LTD.

    Unfortunately, Financing Research business does not works that way! There is a great misunderstanding that we decide to clarify with this delivery. Click here to read more about How Financing Research Brokerage Works.

    - Contributor's Guidelines are here for review. Your contribution on "How African countries / entrepreneurs could bridge the developing gap" is welcome.

    Many thanks for dropping by and see you here on June 15, 2003


    Dr. B.M. Quenum

    Editor of AFRICABIZ
    Contact Dr. Bienvenu-Magloire Quenum

    BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES IN AFRICA


    - Several business opportunities - component parts of the Integrated Developing Scheme described in Africans, Stop Being Poor! are listed in following table.


    a- SHEA BUTTER (Issues 5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13)
    b- BLUE GOLD (Issues 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19)
    c- FREEZE-DRIED PAPAIN (Issues 20, 21, 22 and here)
    d- KENAF (Issues 23, 24)
    e- VEGETABLE OIL (Issues 25, 26, 27 and 28)
    f- CEREALS (Issues 30, 31, 32, 33)
    g- FRUITS (34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46)
    h- ESSENTIAL OILS (47, 48)

    - TROPICAL FLOWERS AND FRAGRANCE PLANTS AGRIBUSINESS AS INCOME BUILDING POWER FOR AN AFRICAN COMMUNITY: PART - III - PRODUCTION PROCESSES OF ESSENTIAL OILS

    Essential oils are odorous products from natural raw materials such as leaves, fruits, roots and wood of many seasonal or perennial plants. They are of complex composition and contain alcohol, aldehydes, ketones, phenols, esters, ethers, and turpenes in varying proportions. An estimated 3,000 essential oils exist of which around 300 are of commercial importance. Most of them obtained from agricultural plants, but some 28 essential oils collected in commercial quantities from wild sources Here is a shortlist of essential oils and the plants they originated from; with the main producing countries.

    To give an idea of the complex mixture of chemical ingredients present in essential oils, the chemical composition of Geranium essential oil is exposed here

    - TWO CATEGORIES OF ESSENTIAL OILS ARE IN THE TRADE

    In the essential oils' industry, products are divided into two categories:

    1- Large volume oils produced from leafy raw materials such as Lemon Grass, Citronella, Eucalyptus, roots (Ginger, Tumeric), some flowers (Lavender, Rose, Jeranium, Violetta)

    2- Small volume oils produced from fruits, seed (Coriander), buds (Clove), nuts (Almond, Nutmeg), some flowers (Geranium), wood (Sandalwood).

    - METHODS TO PRODUCING ESSENTIAL OILS

    There are several methods to producing essential oils depending on the categories as above outlined, which finally boils down to three techniques of extraction of the oils.

    1- "Cold" Pressing.

    2- Water Extraction done at cold temperature (Maceration) or high temperature (Steam Extraction or Distillation)

    3- Solvent Extraction
    of the oils from the raw material.

    The first listed method - Cold Pressing - used mainly to produce citrus fruits' essential oils from orange, lemon, grapefruit and tangerine. The technique uses two pieces of wood to press the citrus fruit's peels, one of which has a sponge attached to it. The oil released by the cells insides the peels absorbed by the sponge. And the sponge treated to disgorge the oil.

    Cold Pressing yields high-grade essential oil if controlled; that is processing temperature kept as low as possible to avoid final product's degradation ; raw material (peels of the raw material) are free of external ingredient (residue of pesticides, dust) to avoid contaminating the oil; and working conditions as clean as possible to avoid pollution during the treating the sponge.(Clean sponge at start, clean environment).

    Water Extraction is the most used method to producing essential oils on small, medium or large-scale. Divided into the Maceration and Steam or Distillation

    In Water Maceration the raw material is in direct and prolonged contact with water, in a vessel at current normal atmosphere, to separating the constituents by soaking. After the period of soaking, the content of the vessel filtered out and the resulting liquid contains the essential oil. The liquid further treated to recover "pure" essential oil.

    Water / Steam Distillation is the main method to extract essential oils from plants.
    The technique has two variants:

    a) Distillation at normal current atmosphere - during which the distilled substance reaches its normal boiling temperature point;

    b) Vacuum Distillation during which the atmosphere in the distillation vessel is far lower than current normal atmosphere
    and the distilled substance boils at a temperature lower than its normal boiling temperature.

    There are variants to a) and b) categories above outlined depending on the sort of contact (direct or indirect) the raw material has with the distilling water or steam. In direct contact, the raw material is inside the distilling water; in indirect contact the raw material is not inside the distilling water.

    Steam Distillation
    is based on the assumption that essential oils are volatile in steam and generally insoluble in water. The distillation water, in direct or indirect contact with the raw material, is heated and the volatile constituents of the raw material released into the resulting water's vapor. The vapor is then cool down (condensation) into a liquid containing the raw material's volatile constituents, that is the essential oil.

    In short, the main purpose of water distillation is to separate a mixture of several ingredients by taking advantage of their different volatility, or to separate volatile ingredients of a raw material from it's nonvolatile parts. Distillation at current atmosphere is less costly than vacuum distillation.

    If the final product is too sensible to heat or humidity Solvent Extraction is the most efficient method to use.

    2 Kock Modular Process Systems' Website 3
    4
    1

    Solvent Extraction is adapted to producing essential oils generated by some flowers (Rose, Violetta, Geranium), gums and resins. The raw material is placed in a glass vessel and soaked with a solvent (petroleum, ether or benzene for flowers; acetone for resins and gums). The mixture is then electrically heated. The volatile molecules of essential oils evaporate. They are collected, condensed and filtered to yield the final product. This is a sophisticated method of production of essential oils, which yields high quality essential oils. Diagram at left of this paragraph [Courtesy of KMPS - Kock Modular Process System] schematizes process: 1- Primary Boiling Vessel; 2- Tube Heat Exchanger; 3- Secondary Boiling Vessel; 4- Condenser / Cooler Vessel.



    - BRIEFS ABOUT EXTRACTION / DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY AND APPARATUS

    There are all kinds and size of steam distillation equipment available for sale. They are based on the principle shown on the diagram below: [Courtesy of Maison Mousse]

    Schematic Diagram of A Steam Distillation Unit

    Description of the ingredients of the distillation are here extensively exposed. There are in the trade equipment from 2 liters of countenance for the primary boiler up to several hundred liters. Pricing ranges from US$ 300-400 upward each. Next issue deals with a small-scale operation with only 2 liters of countenance for the boiling vessel.

    - WHY AFRICAN COUNTRIES SHOULD CONSIDER ESSENTIAL OILS INDUSTRY

    The size of essential oils' market exposed in Issue 47 averages US$ 8 billion export a year and increases at the annual rate of 10.9%. Africa' share is less than 1% of that market. So there is doubtless room for Africa to have a better portion of the cake and kill two birds with one stone.

    Indeed, most subsaharan African countries suffer recurrent drought, which results in desertification of their territories. A well planned and carried out reforestation policy is the answer to the problem. Trees species, which are raw material to produce aromatic oils should be planted. The most promising speculations are essential oils from: Geranium, Citronella, Lemongrass or Sweet calamus, Eucalyptus.
    (See Issue 47 for briefs about said plants)

    Once an essential oil industry set up in a subsaharan African country, it opens the way to develop other business opportunities: foods, cosmetics, detergent, pesticides. It will doubtless contribute to the Self-Inducing And Accelerating Impact Factor/ Synergetic Impact Factor and speed up the economic development of said country.

    Malawi, which already has huge acreage of these plantations Geranium, Citronella and Eucalyptus as here briefly exposed, is the right destination for international investors willing to enter the essential oils market and benefit from incentives existing in Malawi


    MORE ON ESSENTIAL OILS
    1- Essential Oils Desk Reference
    By Essential Science Publishing (Hardcover - Oct 2007)
    2- The Complete Book of Essential Oils and Aromatherapy: Over 600 Natural, Non-Toxic and Fragrant Recipes
    By Valerie Ann Worwood (Paperback - Mar 1, 1993)
    3- The Essential Oils Book: Creating Personal Blends for Mind & Body
    By Colleen K. Dodt (Paperback - Jan 3, 1996)
    4- Essential Oils Pocket Reference 3rd Edition (Spiral Bound 2004, 3rd Edition) (Spiral-bound - 2004) - Unabridged
    5- Releasing Emotional Patterns with Essential Oils
    By Carolyn L. Mein (Paperback - Sep 1, 1998)
    6- Essential Oils Integrative Medical Guide: Building Immunity, Increasing Longevity, and Enhancing Mental Performance
    By D. Gary Young N.D. and Ronald M. Lawrence M.D. Ph.D. (Hardcover - April 1, 2003)
    7- Quick Reference Guide for Using Essential Oils2006 10th Edition
    By Connie and Alan Higley (Spiral-bound - 2006)
    8- Magical Oils by Moonlight: Understand Essential Oils, Their Blends and Uses; Choose the Appropriate Day
    By Maya Heath (Paperback - April 2004)

    Adobe Acrobat Reader is available here

    Issue 50 exposes a small scale operation to producing essential oils from the kitchen table.

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