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AFRICABIZ VOL 1 - ISSUE: 48
APRIL 15 - MAY 14, 2003
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Editor: Dr. Bienvenu-Magloire Quenum
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A WORD FROM THE EDITOR


Dear visitor and international investor,


We warmly welcome you, if this is your first visit to Africabiz Online - The ultimate newsletter on trading and investing in 49 sub-Saharan African countries. If you are a regular and faithful reader, welcome back.

The Section about Business Opportunities In Africa deals with properties and characteristics of essential oils . Click here for more.

- LESSON FROM IRAQ

On April 7, 2003 American troops seized downtown central Baghdad and Saddam Hussein's regime crumbled down. Twenty days after Anglo-American troops entered Iraq a 30 years old "dictatorship" collapsed.

However, eight days after the "victory" day of the coalition, posting this delivery, on the morning of April 15, 2003, chaos is still rampant in most of the cities and regions of Iraq under the control of the coalition forces. An orderly and policed country fell apart by foreign and hostile troops' actions.

Banks, state's buildings, private properties and belongings, hospitals, schools, universities, museums ransacked and set ablaze. Looting everywhere. Water, electricity and security are missing. An organized and orderly country jumped back to barbarism.

What is the lesson to learn from the disaster that suddenly occurred in Iraq? How comes the country remained orderly despite 12 years of economical sanctions and embargo imposed on the country by the "international community" from 1991 to 2003 and collapsed just in 20 days of foreign invasion.

This event shows the following trilogy: Water, Electricity and Security is the pillar of the harmonious development of a country. Click here for more.

- Contributor's Guidelines are here for review. Your contribution on "How African countries / entrepreneurs could bridge the developing gap" is welcome.

Many thanks for dropping by and see you here on May 15, 2003


Dr. B.M. Quenum

Editor of AFRICABIZ
Contact Dr. Bienvenu-Magloire Quenum

BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES IN AFRICA


- Several business opportunities - component parts of the Integrated Developing Scheme described in Africans, Stop Being Poor! are listed in following table.


a- SHEA BUTTER (Issues 5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13)
b- BLUE GOLD (Issues 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19)
c- FREEZE-DRIED PAPAIN (Issues 20, 21, 22 and here)
d- KENAF (Issues 23, 24)
e- VEGETABLE OIL (Issues 25, 26, 27 and 28)
f- CEREALS (Issues 30, 31, 32, 33)
g- FRUITS (34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46)
h- ESSENTIAL OILS (47)

- TROPICAL FLOWERS AND FRAGRANCE PLANTS AGRIBUSINESS AS INCOME BUILDING POWER FOR AN AFRICAN COMMUNITY: PART - II - CONTINUATION TO THE INTRODUCTION TO THE ESSENTIAL OILS' INDUSTRY

Essential oils are odorous products produced from natural raw materials such as leaves, fruits, roots and wood of many seasonal or perennial plants. They are of complex composition and contain alcohol, aldehydes, ketones, phenols, esters, ethers, and turpenes in varying proportions. An estimated 3,000 essential oils exist of which around 300 are of commercial importance. Most of them obtained from agricultural plants, but some 28 essential oils are collected in commercial quantities from wild sources Here is a shortlist of essential oils and the plants they originated from; with the main producing countries.

- AVAILABILITY OF RAW MATERIAL IN AFRICA

The condition to develop essential oils' industry, on small, medium or large-scale industrial basis, is of course the availability of the raw material. Agricultural develpment of the raw materials (plants, seeds, nuts here listed) used to produce essential oils are not considered in this delivery. People interested in the matter should refer to other sources for data and information. Only exposed are the technical information necessary to the setup of the industry.

Previous issue gives briefs about the characteristics of four plants, which are the most used to produce essential oils i.e. Geranium, Citronella, Eucalyptus and Lemongrass.

In subsaharan African countries, Malawi is the one that already has plantations of Eucalyptus (15,000 ha); Lemongrass (3,200 ha) and Citronella (2,800 ha).

However, there is not, posting this article on April 15, 2003, an essential oils industry set up in Malawi and exporting. Malawi is doubtless the destination for investors interested to setup essential oils industries on medium and large scale basis. They can quickly start the operation. Raw materials are aplenty and costs competitive - a.k.a salaries of hands and staff, availability of various taxes and fiscal incentives granted by Malawi's government.

- CHARACTERISTICS AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ESSENTIAL OILS

Essential oils are a complex mixture of hundred of chemical ingredients. Only Nature can perform such a blend!

The charasteristics and chemical composition of essential oils depend on various factors. Of course the agronomic specie of the raw material plays an important role; with the preparation made on the raw material before extracting the oil. The method of extraction used to produce the essential oils also has an impact. (Methods of production shall be exposed in Issue 49). Some volitile ingredients may disappear from the final product depending on the handling and storage of the raw material. A small temperature difference during the production may give another essential oil; and essential oils from different production batches may differ in their chemical composition.

Therefore, it is important for a producer to follow strict production procedure from the preparation phase to the final production to have a "stable" product as requested by buyers.


To give an idea of the complex mixture of chemical ingredients present in essential oils, below exposed is the chemical composition of Geranium essential oil:

Hydrocarbons: a-phellandrene (trace), b-phellandrene, a-pinene (1%), b-pinene (0.2%), myrcene (0.2%), limonene (0.2%), cis-ocimene (0.2%) (monoterpenes 1-2%) - Guaiazulene, a-copaene, g-cadinene, d-cadinene, a-bourbonene, b-bourbonene, caryophyllene (0.7%) (sesquiterpenes) - Alcohol: citronellol (21-45%), geraniol (17-25%), linalool (1-13%), nerol (1.2%), a-terpineol (0.7%) (monoterpenols 55-65%) - 10-epi-y-eudesmol (1%) (sesquiterpinol) - phenyl ethyl alcohol (aromatic) - Esters 15%: citronellyl formates (8-18 %), geranyl formates (1-6%), citronellyl proprionates (1-3%), geranyl proprionates (0-1%) geranyl tiglates (1-2%), geranyl acetate, citronellyl butyrate, geranyl butyrate (1.3%) - Aldehydes Bourbon variety 0-10%: neral, geranial (0-9%), citronella (0-1%) - Oxides-Only in Chinese variety: 2-3%: cis-rose oxide (2-25%), cis-linalool oxide, trans-rose oxide (1%), trans-linalool oxide - Ketones 1-8%: menthone (0.6-3%), isomenthone (4-8%), piperitone, furopelargone [Source]

- USAGES OF ESSENTIAL OILS

The complex mixture above listed can be "broken" into fewer complex or single separated chemical products, which are also raw material for further industrial transformation. These individual chemical ingredients are used as building blocks to introduce a particular flavor or aroma into another product.

Therefore one can see the industry of essential oils as the gateway to an endless variety of other industrial transformations. They include paint, petroleum, mining and manufacturing; food (processing and flavoring); drink (alcoholic and nonalcoholic flavorings), pharmaceutical products, perfumes and toiletries, hygiene products, and pesticides.

- WHY AFRICAN COUNTRIES SHOULD CONSIDER ESSENTIAL OILS INDUSTRY

The size of essential oils' market exposed in Issue 47 averages US$ 8 billion export a year and increases at the annual rate of 10.9%. Africa' share is less than 1% of that market. So there is doubtless room for Africa to have a better portion of the cake and kill two birds with one stone.

Indeed, most subsaharan African countries suffer recurrent drought, which results in desertification of their territories. A well planned and carried out reforestation policy is the answer to the problem. Trees species, which are raw material to produce aromatic oils should be planted. The most promising speculations are essential oils from: Geranium, Citronella, Lemongrass or Sweet calamus, Eucalyptus.
(See Issue 47 for briefs about said plants)

Once an essential oil industry set up in a subsaharan African country, it opens the way to develop other business opportunities: foods, cosmetics, detergent, pesticides. It will doubtless contribute to the Self--Inducing And Accelerating Impact Factor/ Synergetic Impact Factor and speed up the economic development of said country.

Malawi, which already has huge acreage of these plantations Geranium, Citronella and Eucalytus as here briefly exposed, is the right destinantion for international investors willing to enter the essential oils market and benefit from incentives existing in Malawi


MORE ON ESSENTIAL OILS
1- Essential Oils Desk Reference
By Essential Science Publishing (Hardcover - Oct 2007)
2- The Complete Book of Essential Oils and Aromatherapy: Over 600 Natural, Non-Toxic and Fragrant Recipes
By Valerie Ann Worwood (Paperback - Mar 1, 1993)
3- The Essential Oils Book: Creating Personal Blends for Mind & Body
By Colleen K. Dodt (Paperback - Jan 3, 1996)
4- Essential Oils Pocket Reference 3rd Edition (Spiral Bound 2004, 3rd Edition) (Spiral-bound - 2004) - Unabridged
5- Releasing Emotional Patterns with Essential Oils
By Carolyn L. Mein (Paperback - Sep 1, 1998)
6- Essential Oils Integrative Medical Guide: Building Immunity, Increasing Longevity, and Enhancing Mental Performance
By D. Gary Young N.D. and Ronald M. Lawrence M.D. Ph.D. (Hardcover - April 1, 2003)
7- Quick Reference Guide for Using Essential Oils2006 10th Edition
By Connie and Alan Higley (Spiral-bound - 2006)
8- Magical Oils by Moonlight: Understand Essential Oils, Their Blends and Uses; Choose the Appropriate Day
By Maya Heath (Paperback - April 2004)

Adobe Acrobat Reader is available here

In Issue 49, the production process of essential oils is exposed.

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