BUSINESSAFRICA.NET NEWSLETTER ISSN 1563-4108
Dr. QUENUM & ASSOCIATES
INVESTMENT AND BUSINESS PLANNERS

Fax: +1 202 478 0432
Click here for contact & support console


Click for Africabiz's library on management
AFRICABIZ MONTHLY ISSUE - FRONTPAGE

Africabiz Online Home
Trading
Current
Financing
Opportunities
Desktop Control
Add Links
Dynamic News
Developing News
MediaKit
FAQ
Contact-Support
Site Search by Freefind


Only US$12.75
Achetez Africains, Refusez de Rester Pauvres!
!

AFRICABIZ VOL 1 - ISSUE: 44
DECEMBER 15, 2002 - JANUARY 14, 2003
Previous Issue
Editor: Dr. Bienvenu-Magloire Quenum
Click here for contact & support console
Featured Article
Countries Briefs
Live News On Africa
Contact Information
Synopsis Rss Feed Sample
A Word From the Editor
Business Opportunities
FrontDoor
Your Feedback
Freebie For You
Control Your Desktop

A WORD FROM THE EDITOR


Dear visitor and international investor,


We warmly welcome you, if this is your first visit to Africabiz Online - The ultimate newsletter on trading and investing in 49 sub-Saharan African countries. If you are a regular and faithful reader, welcome back.

If you are a regular and faithful reader, welcome back.

HAPPY AND SUCCESSFUL BUSINESS YEAR 2003

We at Africabiz Online wish you and your loved ones a very festive Yule 2002-period; a happy and prosperous business year 2003.

Owing to the length of "Business Opportunity" posted this month, the "Editorial" is shifted here.

- Contributor's Guidelines are here for review. Your contribution on "How African countries / entrepreneurs could bridge the developing gap" is welcome.

Many thanks for dropping by and see you here on January 15, 2003


Dr. B.M. Quenum

Editor of AFRICABIZ
Contact Dr. Bienvenu-Magloire Quenum

BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES IN AFRICA


- Several business opportunities with high profit making potential, which are economic catalysts and components to the Strategy for African Countries - here available, have been introduced to you. They are listed in following table.

a- SHEA BUTTER (Issues 5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13)
b- BLUE GOLD (Issues 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19)
c- FREEZE-DRIED PAPAIN (Issues 20, 21, 22 and here)
d- KENAF (Issues 23, 24)
e- VEGETABLE OIL (Issues 25, 26, 27 and 28)
f- CEREALS (Issues 30, 31, 32, 33)
g- FRUITS (34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43)

- TROPICAL FRUITS INDUSTRY AS INCOME BUILDING POWER FOR AN AFRICAN COMMUNITY: PART X : INTRODUCTION TO FOOD ENZYME MARKET / NATURAL NUTRIMENTS / BROMELAIN / A COMPETITOR OF PAPAIN

Pineapple fruit is an extraordinary concentrate of several chemical components necessary to a healthy human and animal life as shown by the composition below listed:

Composition: Per 100 g of pineapple fruit:

Courtesy of Sarinegar.com47-52 calories, 85.3-87.0 g H2O, 0.4-0.7 g protein, 0.2-0.3 g fat, 11.6-13.7 g total carbohydrate, 0.4-0.5 g fiber, 0.3-0.4 g ash, 17-18 mg Ca, 8-12 mg P, 0.5 mg Fe, 1-2 mg Na, 125-146 mg K, 32-42 mg b-carotene equivalent, 0.06-0.08 mg thiamin, 0.03- 0.04 mg riboflavin, 0.2-0.3 mg niacin, and 17-61(-96) mg ascorbic acid.

The following aromatics / essential oils have been detected: methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, isobutanol, n-pentanol, ethyl acetate, ethyl-n-butyrate, methylisovalerianate, methyl-n-capronate, methyl-n-caprylate, n-amyl-n-capronate, ethyl lactate, methyl-b-methylthiolpropionate, ethyl-b-methylthiolpropionate, and diacetyl, acetone, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, furfurol, and 5-hydroxy-2-methylfurfurol. Source

Pineapple cultivated in African countries is exported as fresh or canned fruit, or locally processed into juice concentrates and syrup for the local and export market. Pineapple bran, the cake / residue obtained after extracting the juice, has a high content of vitamin A: it is an excellent feed for livestock. From the juice citric acid could be extracted, or processed into alcohol, after fermentation.

The most interesting processed product, however, is a food enzyme called Bromelain or Bromelin, which is a competitor to papain.


- BROMELAIN BIOCHEMISTRY, PHARMACOLOGY AND MEDICINAL USE


Bromelain is a mixture of several proteases / enzymes. It is a competitor to papain (from papaya) and is used for tenderizing meat; chill proofing beer; additive to gelatin to increase its solubility. Etc. It is also a stabilizer for latex paints and an efficient additive in leather-tanning chemical mixture. In modern therapy, it is taken as a digestive and used for its anti-inflammatory action after surgery; to reduce swellings in cases of physical injuries; also in the treatment of various other sufferings.

Indeed, bromelain has a very large specter of usage in biochemistry, pharmacology and miscellaneous illness treatments because it contains, among other components, various closely related proteinases, demonstrating, in vitro and in vivo, antiedematous, antiinflammatory, antithrombotic and fibrinolytic activities.

Due to its efficacy after oral administration, its safety and lack of undesired side effects, bromelain has earned growing acceptance and compliance among patients as a phytotherapeutical drug.
Click here for more.

Bromelain is therefore largely used in developed countries as supplement / nutrient. Particularly in the States.

- In view of above listed usage of Bromelain, and the outstanding chemical components present in pineapple fruit itself, African countries should devote more Research & Development to Pineapple fruit in order to creating pharmaceutical / phytomedicinal industries / food enzymes for local and export market.

- PAPAIN / BROMELAIN / FOOD ENZYME MARKET


According to the Chemical Marketing Reporter, the US' food enzyme market is growing 3% to 5% annually in tight correlation with the growth in Europe - the main supplier to the US' market.

The greatest competitor (proteolytic enzyme) to papain i.e. which can more or less be a complete substitute to papain is bromelain - derived from pineapple.


Table below lists Spot prices of papain during the period of June 1990 - April 1994. (Source: Journal of Commerce June 1990 - April 1994 - posted here). Even if these prices are now outdated, they do give an idea of the expensive pricing papain (and therefore its substitute bromelain) could reach on the international marketplace.
Prices are fluctuating in the US$/ kg 45 to 120 range since 10 years running in close relationship with offer and demand.

Years 6/90 12/90 6/91 12/91 6/92 12/92 6/93 12/93 4/94
$US/kg 45.00 45.00 45.00 45.00 45.00 99.00 99.50 120.00 85.00

- THE US MARKET OF FOOD ENZYMES

The US is the major market for all kinds of enzymes. It consumes more or less 85 % of enzymes produced worldwide. The US is therefore the main export outlet for other producing countries.

The Statistics on US import of enzymes in value (in the category of "Other enzymes") obtained from the USDA / Foreign Agricultural Service, from year 1996 to year 2001, is reported in following table: (Papain is certainly included in the imports' total; however one cannot have a clear idea in which amount. Nevertheless one could assumed that import from tropical countries are related to papain and maybe to bromelain also.)

COUNTRIES OF ORIGIN JANUARY - DECEMBER JANUARY - DECEMBER
IMPORTED ENZYMES VALUES IN 1000 DOLLARS COMPARISONS
YEARS 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2000 2001 % + or -
 
ARGENTINA 0 1,440 1,748 3,930 6,964 6,964 3,807 -45.33
AUSTRALIA 435 433 297 400 432 432 353 -18.29
AUSTRIA 317 273 30 0 0 0 0 --
BELGIUM-LUXEMBOURG 5,607 7,230 4,817 6,804 5,255 5,255 5,791 10.20
BURMA 139 0 0 0 0 0 0 --
BRAZIL 66 0 0 0 76 76 651 756.58
CANADA 4,727 5,336 5,692 6,907 7,440 7,440 10,436 40.27
SRI LANKA 0 0 11 7 5 5 25 400.00
CONGO (BRAZZAVILLE) 0 0 31 0 59 59 35 -40.68
CONGO (KINSHASA) 79 504 528 618 352 352 135 -61.65
CHINA (PRC) 453 484 414 375 511 511 747 46.18
CHILE 0 0 0 11 0 0 14 --
COLOMBIA 0 0 0 5 0 0 149 --
CZECHOSLOVAKIA 55 20 41 3 2 2 21 950.00
DENMARK 41,698 52,892 42,463 52,938 55,013 55,013 72,119 31.09
ECUADOR 0 0 0 15 0 0 2 --
IRELAND 7,589 3,911 2,817 1,007 2,858 2,858 2,406 -15.82
ESTONIA 0 0 0 4 29 29 75 158.62
FINLAND 16,423 10,848 8,589 9,262 11,621 11,621 9,005 -22.51
FRANCE 6,629 8,582 8,729 8,023 39,690 39,690 14,468 -63.55
GERMANY 31,061 26,885 33,271 41,125 38,966 38,966 28,947 -25.71
GREECE 0 12 65 0 0 0 8 --
HONG KONG 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 --
ICELAND 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 --
INDIA 1,275 1,692 2,034 1,879 1,547 1,547 1,731 11.89
ISRAEL 463 579 698 528 604 604 561 -7.12
ITALY 670 820 1,878 4,798 1,341 1,341 2,776 107.01
JAPAN 37,276 35,840 38,719 43,350 46,403 46,403 51,743 11.51
SOUTH KOREA 48 113 51 84 23 23 18 -21.74
LITHUANIA 379 393 299 402 548 548 361 -34.12
MEXICO 2,095 2,379 2,195 1,728 2,676 2,676 2,581 -3.55
NETH. ANTILLES 639 1,571 1,727 918 2,052 2,052 697 -66.03
NETHERLANDS 1,133 4,407 5,754 7,410 5,636 5,636 4,008 -28.89
NORWAY 0 0 406 926 1,104 1,104 1,333 20.74
NEW ZEALAND 20 6 10 184 5 5 79 1480.00
PERU 53 0 0 0 0 0 0 --
POLAND 0 21 5 38 37 37 23 -37.84
PORTUGAL 4 2 2 4 0 0 23 --
PHILIPPINES 0 3 6 0 0 0 0 --
RUSSIA 0 15 683 198 314 314 301 -4.14
SAUDI ARABIA 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 --
SOUTH AFRICA, 2,864 2,906 2,371 2,027 1,218 1,218 2,014 65.35
SIERRA LEONE 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 --
SINGAPORE 0 0 75 0 0 0 0 --
SPAIN 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 --
SWEDEN 344 499 311 0 39 39 58 48.72
SWITZERLAND 10,051 4,440 8,918 2,450 11,064 11,064 4,189 -62.14
THAILAND 1,974 3,714 3,098 2,860 3,303 3,303 3,143 -4.84
TURKEY 0 0 0 0 0 0 54 --
TAIWAN 17 7 25 195 172 172 294 70.93
UGANDA 0 26 21 47 132 132 24 -81.82
UNITED KINGDOM 13,488 15,195 13,081 13,241 15,527 15,527 13,375 -13.86
VENEZUELA 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 --
TOTAL 188,081 193,486 191,910 214,713 263,018 263,018 238,602 -9.28
Data Source: Department of Commerce, US Census Bureau, Foreign Trade Statistics

The major exporters to the US are the European Union countries and other Western European countries. That block accounted for 54.40% of US market in 2001. Denmark being the leading exporter. Based on that observation one is entitled to say that most imports from Europe were other enzymes than papain, mostly enzymes used in the bakery industry. However one cannot be absolutely sure as European countries do import papain from tropical countries for further processing and re-export to the US market.

Outside of Europe, major enzyme exporters to the US are Japan, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Mexico, Canada, Brazil and Argentina. Japan imports raw material first and then re-exports processed papain.


The primary African exporters are the Democratic Republic Of the Congo, Uganda and South Africa. In year 2001 African countries' share in the food enzymes market was less than 1% of the total enzymes' exports to the US.

There is some small scale production of papain in the US mainly in Florida, controlled by Meer Corporation, which does not have an important impact on the market.

- THE EUROPEAN MARKET OF FOOD ENZYMES

Globally, as shown in table above, Europe's exports to the US fluctuate between 75% to 55% of US' market of all kinds of enzymes.

European countries import a sizable quantity of papain from West African countries as well as from India. That papain is then further processed and re-exported to the US. The level of importing and processing explains the variation in custom values of imports as listed in above table.

The major importers of enzymes in the European Union / EU (by quantity) are Denmark, United Kingdom, Germany and France. The majority of enzymes used in the EU are imported from other European countries such as Finland, Switzerland and Austria. It would be safe to assume that the enzymes imported from these countries are mostly other enzymes than papain. But one cannot be absolutely sure.

- DIFFICULTY TO EVALUATE THE SHARE OF PAPAIN / BROMELAIN

It is very difficult to have free access to statistics specific to the quantities of papain or bromelain produced and sold on the global marketplace.

A report is available here titled: Enzymes For Industrial Applications, which is selling at US$ 3,350 - hard copy (+ 15% for PDF) without one having the certitude, in view of posted synopsis, to obtaining up-to-date and reliable stats and information on papain and or bromelain.

The analysis of US and EU's customs stats is not easy. There is a category of "Other enzymes" in US's customs stats, as above listed, from which one can only guess the share of papain and bromelain. One can consider enzymes originating from tropical African and Asian countries as related mainly to papain and bromelain.

However, it is a well known fact in the trade that Japan imports raw material (papain) from Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries for processing and re-exporting, mainly to the States. European countries also do the same from African countries. In the US, the major market player - Meer Corporation - imports the bulk of its marketable papain from India; and field experiences are carried out in the state of Georgia to grow papaya for papain production.

Nevertheless, even though the share of papain / bromelain is hard to discriminate from the aggregate of "Other enzymes", the opinion prevails amongst traders that the demand for papain / bromelain would increase, in view of their remarkable medicinal properties as previously exposed.

- OPPORTUNITY FOR AFRICAN COUNTRIES TO ENTERING THE ENZYMES' MARKET

Papain is a significant export item for Tanzania, Uganda, RDC and South Africa. However, imports from African countries accounted for under 1% of total imports of enzymes to the US as shown on table above about US imports.

Obviously there is an opportunity for African countries to entering the market of food enzymes and grabbing a biggest share because, owing to the pricing of papain / bromelain on the international marketplace, producing and exporting - even small quantities - should be a profitable line of business for African entrepreneurs.

Indeed, there is no doubt that African countries have, with papain and bromelain, a business opportunity with a secure credit worthy outlet to the US, the EU and Japan; not to mention the huge market for nutriments and supplements not yet fulfilled and available right now in the whole continent; plus the possibility to supplying (in the near future) papain and bromelain to the pharmaceutical industry for the production of vaccine against AIDS / HIV.


Next issue 45 shall deal with investment estimate and production costs to producing bromelain. Click here for investment estimate to producing 35 metric tons / year of high grad freeze-dried papain.

Locations of visitors to this page

- Interested parties - private African and international investors / companies, government agencies, international development agencies - to make contact through the Free Access Support Console available at this link

Contact through the support console will get quickest reply from Africabiz Online's staff, than contact by emails. Click here for contact information. Be advised that first contact should be through the support console to be followed by phone calls. If you are a VIP-Member, use VIP-Members Support Console available here.
Before you consult please click here to review this clarification

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
AFRICA'S DYNAMIC NEWS HEADLINES

COUNTRIES BRIEFS
OFFERS ON TROPICAL COMMODITIES

CLICK FOR FINANCING UP TO US$40MILLION PER PROJECT
BID ON JOBS AND PROJECTS WORLDWIDE
VIP MEMBERS LOUNGE
Africabiz Newsletter

Click here to review million of Free Auctions and Classifieds

Click for Banners Positioning and Pricing
BUY, SELL, TRADE AND SWAP
THE FREE WORLDWIDE BIZCENTER MESSAGES BOARD