Africans-Stop-Being-Poor

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1563-4108

AFRICABIZ ONLINE SYNOPSIS RSS FEED
Trading And Investing In & Out Africa

ISSUE 92 - VOL 1
DECEMBER 15, 2006 - JANUARY 14, 2007

Dr. Bienvenu-Magloire Quenum
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Welcome to AFRICABIZ, Please scrolldown to see more

Welcome to Africabiz Online Synopsis RSS Feed edition. Previous issue available atthis link

- HAPPY AND SUCCESSFUL BUSINESS YEAR 2007

Africabiz Online editorial team wishes you and your loved ones a very festive Christmas 2005-period; a happy and prosperous business year 2007.


ENERGY SELF-SUFFICIENCY IS FEASIBLE FOR AFRICAN COUNTRIES

Click here for the beginning of the article

We have constantly advocated for the drafting of business plan before implementing a project. The business plan to be used as a control board for investment scheduling and first six months' operation. In a previous delivery, it had also been stated that a dynamic business planning is the must compared to the initial "static" business plan.

For sure, a business plan is a must, but as stated by Itai Madamombe, "Business plans are only final as the next electricity outage permits."

In other words, the best business plan is useless if one does not have access to a constant supply of energy to power the operation.

In developed countries, energy' supply is guaranteed non-stop 24 hours around the clock. Outages do occur from time to time. But they are exceptional and caused by Acts of God. Human failure is rare as power companies are well serviced and managed by dedicated personnel. Entrepreneurs do not have to worry about the quality of the delivery and its permanent availability.

In the developing world, that is not the case. There is a permanent state of energy crisis, and the quality of electricity delivered is "poor", characterized by either high voltage's outbursts, or by brutal low-voltage occurrences. Further, the delivery is not guaranteed. Outages occurring without notice and sometimes persisting for hours - and even several running days, which means blackout.

- CURRENTLY, RENEWABLE ENERGY IS NOT PROMOTED IN AFRICAN COUNTRIES

In most of African countries, energy's offer is not coping with demand, which yearly increase is 30 percent above. Further, installed power generating infrastructures are fueled by fossil raw-materials (coal and oil) or by hydropower. They are badly serviced and mismanaged. In addition, these fossil-powered infrastructure require heavy investment in energy -transportation system (poles, lengthy wire lines over hundred to thousand of kilometers, power-grids. Etc.;) - to deliver the electricity to consumers - mainly in cities, which get in average 91 percent of the output. Rural areas are simply left in the darkness.

The currently existing energy production pattern in African countries as above briefly outlined, was inherited from the colonial era, and African countries had not managed to divert from that schema.

Indeed, apart from the construction of few dams here and there, to increase the percentage of hydropower in the total of electricity output, other sources of energy had not been exploited - like the exploitation of the abundant sun-rays that shine over African countries, wind-power and biomass.

- RENEWABLE ENERGY IS THE ANSWER TO THE ENERGY CRISIS IN AFRICAN COUNTRIES

The current energy crisis existing in African countries here [1, 2] briefly exposed, is an aberration - one amongst several (astonishing) "failures" that puzzle observers - as solutions exist to suppress the crisis, which are not only less costly to install and manage than fossil raw-material powered systems, but also would provide abundant renewable energy to boosting the developing in rural areas.

That is the reason Africabiz made several deliveries dedicated to biomass [
89, 90, 91, 92], to expose the huge potential existing in African countries to establish renewable energy infrastructure, and divert energy production from the existing fossil raw-material powered pattern.

- THE IMPACT RENEWABLE ENERGY WOULD HAVE ON THE DEVELOPING

Issue 92 of "Business Opportunities In Africa" briefly described How Much Electricity could be generated by a specific biomass operation. That is, the breeding and fattening of hogs, and the use of the animal waste to produce first biogas, and second, to generate electricity.

A single unit that breeds and fattens 3,203 hogs per year, would be producing daily output of 12,636 megawatts per hour.

Let us consider that several operations of the same size are implemented as advocated in the Case Study titled: How African Countries Could Reach Annual Double-digit Growth Rates. That is, the establishment of 1,000 units that each breeds and fattens 3,203 hog per year (from Farrow to Finish - see table of daily production of biogas here).

The total daily production of electricity generated from biogas would be amounting to 12.636 megawatts per hour.

Astonishing. To further evaluate the impact of such a program to producing electricity from biomass, let us consider the city of Cotonou / Benin (1,000,000 people) where SBEE (the national utility company) is servicing only 80 percent of the populations - with 74 MWh output per day (September-November 2006) - and which is experiencing acute power-cuts as described at the beginning of this delivery).

One can deduct from above statistics that a daily output of 12,636 MWh of renewable electricity, produced by an animal breeding operation, as above briefly described, would be servicing about 170,000 people or supplying electricity to about 17,000 rural households - for basic needs such as cooking and lighting (using low-voltage lighting bulbs;) and also servicing several industrial units (crops' transformation) established in rural areas.

All this, for operating costs far less than costs resulting from fossil fuel generated electricity. In addition, thousand of jobs would be created in rural areas - farmers that growth oil-seed plants and small transformers who extract vegetable oil from from the oil seeds and produce oil-cake that is used to breed and fatten the hogs. Review this link for more on the matter

- RESULTING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPROVEMENT

As a result of the digestion process that leads to the production of biogas from the slurry of hog's dung, digested manure containing fewer pathogenic organisms is produced (that is less odorous than raw manure).

The resulting effluent (composed of liquid fertilizer and compost) can be stored and land applied (deep injection or shallow injection) without concern for odour nuisances. It is an excellent natural liquid fertilizer to grow cereals (corn, millet and sorghum in particular).

That is another proof the Strategy For African Countries as here exposed is a winning developing strategy that would assist African countries boost the industrialization process (and reduce the cost of importing chemical fertilizers).

In conclusion, one can assert that the setup of renewable energy programs in African countries to generate electricity would give a tremendous boost to the developing. It would diversify economic activities in rural areas that host up to 80 percent of the populations. Such a program would be a tremendous asset in advancing industrialization (crops' transformation), and accelerating the global developing through annual double-digit growth rates as exposed in the case study here available.

Click following link to download an excellent article (in Adobe PDF format) titled: A Dozen Successful Swine Waste Digesters by Mark A. Moser

"CONTRIBUTOR'S GUIDELINES" are available here. We invite you to contribute to AFRICABIZ ONLINE MONTHLY ISSUE - with articles related to "How Africa Could Bridge The Developing Gap".

Your feedback / objection / contribution is welcome. Visit WorldWide BizCenter, and choose General Information (as topic) to create a thread for discussion. On the top of the WorldWide BizCenter page, there is a HELP link to assist you making an efficient use of the discussion board. This link also is useful


Many thanks for subscribing to Africabiz. See you here on January 15, 2007.


  Dr. B.M. Quenum
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Business Opportunities

BIOMASS ENERGY - PART IV: - AN ANIMAL BREEDING OPERATION COUPLED WITH A BIODIGESTER TO PRODUCING BIOGAS AND ELECTRICITY

On a small-scale basis, farm wastes put into a warmed, dampened and dark tank [that is anaerobic conditions] would produce: (1) methane / biogas; and (2) a good fertilizer. The owner / producer gets three products from agricultural wastes: a gas to heat and light the home and a fuel to generate electricity and power equipments and machine to operating projects available at following links: 27, 28, 85, 86, 87

In a previous delivery dedicated to "A Case Study On How African Countries Could Reach Double-digit Annual Growth Rates," hog breeding/ fattening coupled with vegetable oil production had been exposed.

At full capacity, the operation would be breeding / fattening 3,206 pigs / day from farrow to finish (for glossary click here.) That operation would produce huge amount of slurry (1 pig (over > 60 Kg) produces 2 kg of fresh excrement per day
[Source]), that could be used to produce biogas.

- HOW MUCH BIOGAS CAN BE PRODUCED?

Below outlined is a calculator for estimating the amount of biogas that the operation above exposed can produce. The calculator is a guideline only and should not be used for design purposes.[Source]

1. Table below gives the amount of biogas produced per day and per hog during the different phases of breeding / fattening operation:


Hogs Cubic metres biogas/hog/year
Farrow to Finish 720
Farrow to Wean 222
Farrowing 174
Weaner 24
Feeder 78
For terminology / glossary about above breeding / fattening technical words click here

2. Considering the hog breeding / fattening operation here described, at full capacity, 3,206 hog would be producing 720 m3 of biogas per animal and per day. That is: [ 3,206 hogs * 720 m3 biogas / hog / yr = 2,308,320 m3 biogas / year ]

3. As 2 kWh of electricity can be generated using one m3 of biogas, the resulting quantity of electricity "extracted" from the breeding / fattening of a flock of 3,206 pigs per year amounts to:

2,208,320 * 2 kWh/ m3 biogas = 4,616,640 kWh of electricity per year

One sees that with such a quantity of electricity generated by the breeding/ fattening operation, the operating farm would be self sufficient in energy. That would be a tremendous achievement for African countries deprived of oil fields and coal reserves.

That is another proof Strategy For African Countries is a winning developing scheme that would be self-sufficient in energy and generate double-digit annual growth rates over a minimum of 10 years as here exposed

Click here to read about: Energy Self-sufficiency Is Feasible For African Countries.

More on the matter

MORE ON BIOGAS ENERGY
1- 21st Century Essential Guide to Methane and Biogas
Landfill Methane and Manure for Energy, AgStar Program, Recovery and Mitigation, Greenhouse Gas Emissions
by World Spaceflight News (CD-ROM - Mar 5, 2005)
2- Running a Biogas Program
by David Fulford
3- Biogas From Waste
by Dieter Deublein and Angelika Steinhauser (Hardcover - Apr. 18, 2008)
4- A Chinese Biogas Manual: Popularising Technology in the Countryside
by Ariane van Buren
5-
The biogas handbook
by David House
6- Biogas: What It Is, How It Is Made, How to Use It
by Food and Agriculture Organization of the (Paperback - Jan 1985)

7- Biogas systems: Principles and applications
by K. M Mittal
8- Biogas:
The Indian NGOs' Experience
9- Landfilling of Waste: Biogas
by T. Christensen, T. H. Christensen, R. Cossu, and R. Stegmann (Hardcover - Jan 15, 1996)
10- Building a Better Biogas Unit
(Better Framing Series, No 32/F3028)
by Food and Agriculture Organization of the (Paperback - Jun 1987)
11- Winning Our Energy Independence
by S. David Freeman (Paperback - Sept. 7, 2007)
12- China, azolla propagation and small-scale biogas technology
Report on an FAO/UNDP study tour to the People's Republic of China
by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (Paperback - 1978)



Control Your Desktop

TO KEEP SPYWARE AT BAY YOU NEEDS TO INSTALL SEVERAL ANTISPAYWARE ON YOUR SYSTEM


In previous deliveries [16, 44, 63, 69] it had been stressed out that one needs to install a Firewall plus an Antivirus client in addition to an AntiSpyware utility to keep one's computer shielded from Virus, Worms, Trojan horses and Spyware's attacks.

However, the number of attacks and threats are increasing every day. And now one can assert that even the above suggested combination cannot protect a system from the constant attacks and treats that are flooding the net. It seems that several Antispyware clients, in addition to a Firewall and an Antivirus utilities, would be more protective.

Indeed, visiting rogue sites, which are increasingly popping up in the World Wild Web, one is exposed to code injection, stealth malware installation and other dirty practices - through the browser's ports, that bypass Firewall, Antivirus and Antispyware clients.

The problem get worse when one knows that there are false Antispyware around supported by aggressive, deceptive and forceful advertising and marketing.

Truly, AntiSpyware utilities represent the worse that could exist in the IT field. They symbolize the deceptive side of humanity and stand as a troubling monument to the myriad ways that greed can exploit fear, confusion, desperation, and ignorance.

One is really confused and lost when selecting which AntiSpyware to install. Fortunately, as in normal life, there are warriors who are dedicated to blocking the actions, deeds and mischief of people who spend their time cheating and destroying around.

There is an excellent site dedicated to spyware that had tested hundred of Antispyware and had listed rogue antispyware clients that are roaming the net in search for victims.

More on the matter


Freebie Of The Month

INSTALL AT LEAST FREEWARE VERSIONS OF FIREWALLS, ANTIVURUS AND ANTISPYWARE TO SURF IN PEACE

The most efficient Antispyware clients and Antivirus and Firewall utilities always have freeware editions. These freeware do lack some of the PRO versions specifics, but are "enough" if you are vigilant to protect your system when surfing the net. Click on the links provided in Control Your Desktop to download these freeware and surf in peace.


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